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User Guide

NI AWR Design Environment v14.04 Edition


1960 E. Grand Avenue, Suite 430
El SegundoCA 90245
USA
Phone: +1 310.726.3000
Fax: +1 310.726.3005
Website: www.ni.com/awr

U.S. Technical Support phone: 888.349.7610

LEGAL NOTICES

© 2019 National Instruments. All rights reserved. © 2019 AWR Corporation. All rights reserved.

Trademarks

  • Analog Office, APLAC, AWR, AWR Design Environment, AXIEM, Microwave Office, National Instruments, NI, ni.com and TX-Line are registered trademarks of National Instruments. Visual System Simulator (VSS), Analyst, and AWR Connected are trademarks of AWR Corporation/National Instruments. Refer to the Trademarks section at ni.com/trademarks for other National Instruments trademarks.

  • Other product and company names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.

Patents

For patents covering NI AWR software products/technology, refer to ni.com/patents.

The information in this guide is believed to be accurate. However, no responsibility or liability is assumed by National Instruments for its use.


Table of Contents

1. Preface
1.1. About This Book
1.1.1. Additional Documentation
1.1.2. Typographical Conventions
1.2. Getting Online Help
2. The Design Environment
2.1. Components of the Design Environment
2.1.1. Licensing and Version Information
2.2. Working With Projects
2.2.1. Using the Project Browser
2.2.1.1. Project Browser Contents
2.2.1.2. Expanding and Collapsing Nodes
2.2.1.3. Speed Menus
2.2.1.4. Copying Project Items
2.2.1.5. Renaming Project Items
2.2.1.6. Deleting Project Items
2.2.1.7. Accessing Submenus
2.2.1.8. Scrolling in Windows
2.2.2. Creating, Opening, and Saving a Project
2.2.2.1. Opening Example Projects
Filtering Examples
2.2.2.2. Autosaving Projects
2.2.2.3. Saving Project Versions
2.2.3. Displaying Document Windows
2.2.3.1. Multiple Document Interface (MDI) Windows
2.2.3.2. Floating Windows
2.2.3.3. Windows Dialog Box
2.2.3.4. Open Project Item
2.2.4. .vin files
2.2.5. Saving Projects As Project Templates
2.2.6. Specifying Global Project Settings
2.2.6.1. Configuring Global Project Units
2.2.6.2. Configuring Global Project Frequency
2.2.6.3. Configuring Global Interpolation Settings
2.2.7. Working With Foundry Libraries
2.3. Using Property Grids
2.3.1. Property Grid Toolbar
2.3.1.1. Button: Show the list filtered or unfiltered
2.3.1.2. Button: Clear the filters from all columns
2.3.1.3. Button: Show values that match the text
2.3.1.4. Button: Show values that start with matching text
2.3.1.5. Button: Show values that contain matching text
2.3.1.6. Button: Match case
2.3.1.7. Button: Size the columns to the width of the text
2.3.1.8. Button: Enable/Disable edit tool tips
2.3.1.9. Button: Show Help on using this window
2.3.2. Property Grid Column Headers
2.3.2.1. Changing Column Order
2.3.2.2. Changing Column Size
2.3.2.3. Optimizing Column Size
2.3.2.4. Sorting Rows of a Column
2.3.2.5. Selecting All/Nothing in a Column
2.3.3. Property Grid Filtering Text Boxes
2.3.4. Property Grid Values
2.3.4.1. Changing Values
2.3.4.2. Selecting/Clearing Check Boxes
2.3.4.3. Selecting Multiple
2.4. Organizing a Design
2.4.1. Window-in-Window
2.4.1.1. Inserting a Window-in-window
2.4.1.2. Adding Window-in-window from the Project Browser
2.4.1.3. Editing Window-in-Window
2.4.1.4. Aligning Window-in-windows
2.4.2. Rich Text Boxes
2.4.2.1. Adding Rich Text Boxes
2.4.2.2. Editing Rich Text Boxes
2.4.2.3. Saving Text Box Configurations
2.4.3. User Folders
2.4.3.1. Adding User Folders
Grouping Collections Networks as a Document Set
2.4.3.2. Renaming User Folders
2.4.3.3. Adding Items to User Folders
2.4.3.4. Removing Items from User Folders
2.4.3.5. Moving Items in User Folders
2.4.3.6. Organizing Items in User Folders
2.5. Customizing the Design Environment
2.5.1. Customizing Workspace Appearance and Tabs
2.5.1.1. Docking Workspace Windows and Toolbars
2.5.2. Customizing Toolbars and Menus
2.5.2.1. Customize Dialog Box: Menus Tab
2.5.2.2. Customize Dialog Box: Toolbars Tab
Adding a Custom Toolbar and Button
2.5.2.3. Customize Dialog Box: Commands Tab
Split Buttons
Adding a Custom Menu and Command
2.5.3. Assigning and Configuring Hotkeys
2.5.4. Script Utilities
2.6. Importing a Project
2.6.1. Host and Import Project Differences
2.7. Archiving a Project
2.8. Status Window
2.8.1. Status Window Controls
3. Data Files
3.1. Working With Data Files
3.1.1. Importing Data Files
3.1.2. Linking to Data Files
3.1.3. Adding New Data Files
3.1.4. Editing Data Files
3.2. Data File Formats
3.2.1. DC-IV Data File Format
3.2.2. DSCR Data File Format
3.2.3. Generalized MDIF Data File Format
3.2.4. Load Pull Specific GMDIF Formats
3.2.4.1. A/B Wave Format
Impedance Sweeps
Power Sweeps
Frequency Sweeps
Arbitrary Sweeps.
MDIF Data Blocks
3.2.4.2. Derived Quantity Format
Standard Derived Values
Calculated Values
3.2.5. Generalized MDIF N-Port File Format
3.2.5.1. Using GMDIF in a Schematic
3.2.6. MDIF File Format
3.2.6.1. MDIF File Structure and Syntax
3.2.6.2. Complete MDIF File Example
3.2.7. Raw Data File Format
3.2.8. Text Data File Format
3.2.8.1. Comments
3.2.8.2. Tags
3.2.8.3. Column Headings
3.2.8.4. Column Data
3.2.8.5. Use with Microwave Office
3.2.9. Text Data File Load Pull and Source Pull Formats
3.2.9.1. Maury File Formats
3.2.9.2. Swept Power Files
3.2.10. Touchstone File Format
3.2.10.1. Specifying Port Names in Touchstone Data Files
3.2.10.2. Port Names On SUBCKT Schematic Symbols
3.2.10.3. NPORT_F Output File Measurement
3.3. Advanced Data File Topics
3.3.1. Citi Format Files
3.3.2. Incorrect Touchstone Format
3.3.3. N-Port Touchstone Files from Many 2-port Files
3.3.4. Extrapolation Problems (Specifically at DC)
3.3.5. Noise for Data Files
3.3.6. Grounding Types
4. Schematics and System Diagrams
4.1. Schematics and System Diagrams in the Project Browser
4.2. Creating, Importing, or Linking to Schematics
4.3. Creating, Importing, or Linking to System Diagrams
4.4. Specifying Schematic and System Diagram Options
4.4.1. Configuring Global Circuit Options
4.4.2. Configuring Local Schematic or System Diagram Options and Frequency
4.5. Working with Elements on a Schematic
4.5.1. Adding Elements Using the Element Browser
4.5.2. Adding Elements Using the Add Element Command
4.5.3. Moving, Rotating, Flipping, and Mirroring Elements
4.5.3.1. Element Mirroring
4.5.4. Editing Element Parameter Values
4.5.4.1. Selecting Multiple Elements
4.5.4.2. Editing Multiple Elements
4.5.4.3. Editing Element IDs
4.5.5. Using Variables and Equations for Parameter Values
4.5.6. Using Elements With Model Blocks
4.5.6.1. Model Block Concerns
4.5.7. Swapping Elements
4.5.8. Restricted Object Selection
4.5.9. Viewing the Layout for a Schematic
4.6. Working with System Blocks on a System Diagram
4.6.1. Adding System Blocks Using the Element Browser
4.6.2. Adding System Blocks Using the Add Element Command
4.6.3. Moving, Rotating, Flipping, and Mirroring System Blocks
4.6.3.1. System Block Mirroring
4.6.4. Editing System Block Parameter Values
4.6.4.1. Selecting Multiple System Blocks
4.6.4.2. Editing Multiple System Blocks
4.6.4.3. Editing System Block IDs
4.6.5. Using Variables and Equations for Parameter Values
4.6.6. Swapping System Blocks
4.6.7. Restricted Object Selection
4.7. Adding and Editing Ports
4.7.1. Using PORTS
4.7.1.1. PIN_ID and Hierarchy
4.7.1.2. Impedance and Hierarchy
4.7.2. Using PORT_NAMEs
4.7.2.1. Hierarchy
4.7.2.2. Connection by Name
4.8. Connecting a Schematic or System Diagram
4.8.1. Connection by Wires
4.8.1.1. Inference Snapping and Auto-Wiring
4.8.1.2. Connecting Many Elements or System Blocks
4.8.1.3. Auto Wire Cleanup
4.8.2. Element Connection by Name
4.8.2.1. Verifying Connections
4.9. Copying and Pasting Schematics and System Diagrams
4.9.1. Adding Live Graphs, Schematics, Layouts, and System Diagrams
4.10. Adding Subcircuits to a Schematic or System Diagram
4.10.1. Importing Data Files Describing Subcircuits
4.10.2. Adding Subcircuit Elements
4.10.3. Subcircuit Grounding
4.10.3.1. Normal Grounding Type
4.10.3.2. Explicit Ground Node Grounding Type
4.10.3.3. Balanced Ports Grounding Type
4.10.3.4. Proper and Improper Ground Usage
4.10.4. Editing Subcircuit Parameter Values
4.10.5. Using Parameterized Subcircuits
4.10.5.1. Using Parameterized Subcircuits with Layout
4.10.6. Using Inherited Parameters
4.11. Adding Back Annotation to a Schematic or System Diagram
4.12. Vector Instances, Buses, and Multiplicity
4.12.1. Vector Instances
4.12.2. Buses
4.12.3. Connectivity with Vector Instances and Buses
4.12.3.1. Separated Elements and Wires
4.12.3.2. Bus and Vector Instance Sizes
4.12.3.3. Using Ports
4.12.3.4. Bundles
4.12.3.5. Buses in VSS
4.12.4. Multiplicity
4.12.4.1. Vector Instances Versus Multiplicity
Using Vector Instances or Multiplicity
4.13. Exporting Schematics and System Diagrams
4.14. Adding User Attributes to Schematics and System Diagrams
5. Netlists
5.1. Netlists in the Project Browser
5.2. Creating a Netlist
5.3. Importing or Linking to a Netlist
5.3.1. Imported Netlist Types
5.3.1.1. HSPICE Netlist Files (*.sp) and Spectre Netlist Files (*.scs)
5.3.1.2. APLAC Netlist Files (native) (*.lib) and HSPICE Netlist Files (native) (*.sp, *.inc)
5.3.1.3. PSpice Files (*.cir) and Touchstone Files (*.ckt)
5.3.1.4. AWR Netlist Files (*.net)
5.3.2. Importing Transistor Model Netlists and Swapping Nodes
5.3.3. Importing a SPICE Netlist
5.3.3.1. PSpice Netlist Import Details
5.3.3.2. PSpice and Berkeley SPICE MOSFET Model Level 3
5.4. Specifying Netlist Options
5.4.1. Configuring Global Circuit Options
5.4.2. Configuring Local Netlist Options and Frequency
5.5. Adding Data To and Editing a Netlist
5.6. Copying a Netlist
5.7. Renaming a Netlist
5.8. Exporting a Netlist
5.9. AWR Netlist Format
5.9.1. Netlist Blocks
5.9.1.1. DIM Block
5.9.1.2. VAR Block
5.9.1.3. EQN Block
5.9.1.4. CKT Block
5.9.2. Netlist Example
5.10. Touchstone File Import Utility
5.10.1. Example Touchstone File
5.10.1.1. File format: Touchstone Circuit file
5.10.1.2. Subcircuit: Quarter_1
5.10.1.3. Subcircuit: Quarter_2
5.10.1.4. Subcircuit: HALFBPF
5.10.1.5. Subcircuit: BPF2
5.10.1.6. Microwave Office Project Setup after Touchstone Netlist Import
5.10.1.7. Set Up Tunable and Optimizable Variables
5.10.1.8. Subcircuit BPF2
5.10.1.9. Subcircuit - HALFBPF
5.10.1.10. Subcircuit Quarter_1
5.10.1.11. Subcircuit Quarter_2
5.11. Touchstone File Translation Capabilities
5.11.1. Touchstone/AWR Model Support
5.11.1.1. SUPPORTED MODELS
5.11.1.2. For FUTURE Support
5.11.1.3. NOT SUPPORTED
6. Electromagnetic Analysis
7. Graphs, Measurements, and Output Files
7.1. Working with Graphs
7.1.1. Creating a New Graph
7.1.1.1. Using Default Graph Options
7.1.1.2. Renaming a Graph
7.1.2. Graph Types
7.1.2.1. Rectangular Graphs
7.1.2.2. Smith Charts
7.1.2.3. Polar Grids
7.1.2.4. Antenna Plots
7.1.2.5. Tabular Graphs
7.1.2.6. Histogram Graphs
7.1.2.7. Constellation Graphs
7.1.2.8. 3D Graphs
7.1.2.9. Changing Graph Types
7.1.3. Reading Graph Values
7.1.3.1. Cursor Display
7.1.3.2. Adding Graph Markers
Auto-search Markers
Offset Markers
Marker Notes
Marker Names in Labels
7.1.3.3. Adding Line Markers
7.1.3.4. Adding Swept Parameter Markers
7.1.3.5. Modifying Marker Display
7.1.3.6. Modifying Number of Digits in Cursor and Marker Display
7.1.3.7. Modifying Cursor and Marker Display for Complex Data
7.1.4. Modifying the Graph Display
7.1.4.1. Graph Traces
Trace Style
Trace Symbol
Step Color on Traces
Selecting Multiple Traces
Trace Type
Measurement Axis
Measurement Legend Display
7.1.4.2. Additional Measurement Options
7.1.4.3. Modifying the Graph Legend
Legend Display
Legend Location and Size
7.1.4.4. Modifying Graph Labels
7.1.4.5. Modifying the Graph Border/Size
7.1.4.6. Modifying the Graph Division Display
7.1.4.7. Data Zooming
Zooming on Graphs
Zooming on Graph Data
Changing Axis Limits
7.1.4.8. Adding Live Graphs, Schematics, System Diagrams, or Layouts to a Graph
7.1.5. Copying and Pasting Graphs
7.2. Working with Measurements
7.2.1. Adding a New Measurement
7.2.1.1. Adding a Measurement from the Project Browser
7.2.1.2. Adding a Measurement through Another Source
7.2.1.3. Measurement Naming Conventions
7.2.1.4. Ordering Measurements
7.2.2. Measurement Location Selection
7.2.3. Modifying, Copying, and Deleting Measurements
7.2.3.1. Modifying Measurements
7.2.3.2. Copying Measurements
7.2.3.3. Deleting Measurements
7.2.3.4. Displaying Obsolete Graph Measurements
7.2.4. Using the Measurement Editor
7.2.4.1. Navigating the Measurement Editor
7.2.4.2. Measurement Editor Columns
7.2.4.3. Sorting and Filtering
7.2.4.4. Tagging
7.2.5. Disabling a Measurement from Simulation
7.2.6. Simulating Only Open Graphs
7.2.7. Post-Processing Measurements and Plotting the Results
7.2.8. Measurements with Swept Variables
7.2.9. Plotting One Measurement vs. Output Power, Voltage, or Current
7.2.10. Plotting One Measurement vs. Another Measurement
7.2.11. Single Source vs. Template Measurements
7.2.12. Using Project Templates with Template Measurements
7.2.12.1. Measurement Comparison Using Project Templates
7.3. Working with Output Files
7.3.1. Creating an Output File
8. Data Reports
8.1. Measurement Variables
8.1.1. Supported Measurement Parameter Control Types
8.1.2. Measurement Limitations
8.2. Document Sets
8.2.1. Working with DOC_SETs
8.2.1.1. Adding a New DOC_SET
8.2.1.2. Using a DOC_SET in a Measurement
8.2.2. Working with Data Source Groups
8.2.2.1. Measurement on All Documents
8.2.2.2. Measurement on Pinned and Active Documents
8.2.3. Synchronizing Window-in-window
8.3. Working with Data Reports
9. Annotations
9.1. Working with Annotations
9.1.1. Hierarchy
9.1.2. Creating a New Annotation
9.1.3. Modifying the Annotations Display
9.1.3.1. Changing Annotations in the Project Browser
10. Circuit Symbols
10.1. Adding Symbols
10.2. Renaming Symbols
10.3. Deleting Symbols
10.4. Copying Symbols
10.5. Importing Symbols
10.6. Exporting Symbols
10.7. Using the Symbol Editor
10.7.1. Adding Nodes
10.7.2. Adding Rectangles
10.7.3. Adding Polylines
10.7.4. Adding Ellipses
10.7.5. Adding Arcs
10.7.6. Adding Text
10.7.7. Update Symbol Edits
10.7.8. Editing Symbol Shapes
10.8. Using Symbols
10.8.1. Changing Symbols
10.8.2. Default Subcircuit Symbols
10.8.3. Symbols in Library Elements
11. Data Sets
11.1. Graph Data Sets
11.1.1. Adding Graph Data Sets
11.1.2. Restoring Data from Graph Data Sets
11.1.3. Automatically Saving and Restoring Graph Data Sets
11.1.4. Using Graph Data Sets in a Blank Project
11.2. Yield Data Sets
11.2.1. Adding Yield Data Sets
11.2.2. Restoring Data from Yield Data Sets
11.3. Simulation Data Sets
11.3.1. Data Set Icon Colors
11.3.1.1. Data Set Icon Symbols
11.3.2. Data Set Accumulation
11.3.3. Plotting Directly from Data Sets
11.3.4. Pinning Data Sets
11.3.5. EM Data Set Specifics
11.3.5.1. Mesh Only Data Set
11.3.5.2. Updating and Pinning Specifics
11.3.5.3. Viewing Data Set Geometry
11.3.5.4. Updating Clock if Geometry is Current
11.3.5.5. Data Sets for Analyst
11.3.6. APLAC Data Set Specifics
11.3.7. VSS Data Set Specifics
11.3.7.1. Data Sets for Specific Simulation Type
11.4. Working with Data Sets
11.4.1. Saving Data Sets in a Project
11.4.2. Retaining Data Sets
11.4.3. Disabling Auto Delete
11.4.4. Renaming Data Sets
11.4.5. Deleting Data Sets
11.4.6. Updating Data Sets
11.4.7. Exporting Data Sets
11.4.8. Importing Data Sets
11.4.9. Viewing Data Set Contents
12. Variables And Equations
12.1. Equations in the Project Browser
12.2. Using Common Equations
12.2.1. Defining Equations
12.2.2. Editing Equations
12.2.3. Equation Auto-Complete
12.2.3.1. Filtering
12.2.3.2. Turn Off Equation Auto-Complete
12.2.4. Displaying Variable Values
12.2.5. Equation Order
12.2.6. Units for Variables
12.3. Using Global Definitions
12.3.1. Adding New Global Definitions Documents
12.3.2. Assigning Global Definitions to Simulation Documents
12.3.3. Global Definitions Search Order
12.3.4. Renaming Global Definitions Documents
12.3.5. Deleting Global Definitions Documents
12.3.6. Defining Global Model Blocks
12.4. Using Variables and Equations in Schematics and System Diagrams
12.4.1. Assigning Parameter Values to Variables
12.5. Using Output Equations
12.5.1. Adding New Output Equations Documents
12.5.2. Assigning Global Definitions to Output Equation Documents
12.5.3. Renaming Output Equations Documents
12.5.4. Deleting Output Equations Documents
12.5.5. Assigning the Result of a Measurement to a Variable
12.5.6. Editing Output Equations
12.5.7. Plotting Output Equations
12.6. Using Scripted Equation Functions
12.6.1. Adding Equation Functions
12.6.2. Referencing a Function in an Equation
12.6.3. Local and Global Scoping
12.6.3.1. Local Versus Global Functions
12.6.4. Scripting and Debugging Tips
12.6.4.1. Scripting Functions to Call Other Functions
12.6.4.2. Using 'Debug.Print' To Verify Results
12.6.4.3. Setting Breakpoints to Inspect Variables
12.6.4.4. Creating a Test function to Validate Results
12.7. Equation Syntax
12.7.1. Operators
12.7.2. Variable Definitions
12.7.2.1. Function Definitions
12.7.2.2. Representing Complex Numbers
12.7.2.3. Array Indexing
Array Indexing Examples:
12.7.2.4. Precedence
12.7.3. Built-in Functions
12.7.4. Using String Type Variables
12.7.5. Defining Vector Quantities
12.7.6. Swept Measurement Data in Output Equations
12.7.6.1. Inconsistent X-axis Values
12.7.6.2. Inconsistent Number of Points in Each Sweep
13. Wizards
13.1. Amplifier Model Generator Wizard
13.1.1. Selecting Data Files
13.1.2. Memory Estimation and Model Selection
13.1.3. TDNN Training
13.1.3.1. Settings
13.2. Component Synthesis Wizard
13.3. IFF Import Wizard
13.3.1. Options
13.3.2. Component Mapping
13.4. iFilter Filter Wizard
13.4.1. Using the iFilter Wizard
13.4.1.1. Starting the iFilter Wizard
13.4.1.2. Running the iFilter Wizard
13.4.1.3. Closing the Wizard
13.4.1.4. Design Properties
13.4.2. Filter Design Basics
13.4.2.1. Approximating Function
Transmission Zero (TZ)
Finite Transmission Zero (FTZ)
Monotonic Filters
Filters with FTZ(s)
13.4.2.2. Filter Synthesis
13.4.2.3. Design using LP-prototypes
13.4.2.4. Distributed Element Filters
Stubs
Periodicity
Filter Design
13.4.3. General Flow of Filter Design
13.4.3.1. Main iFilter Dialog Box
13.4.3.2. Select Filter Type Dialog Box
13.4.3.3. Approximation Function Dialog Box
13.4.3.4. Change Passband Ripple Dialog Box
13.4.3.5. Modifying Specifications
13.4.3.6. Analyzing a Design
13.4.3.7. Plotting Response and Chart Control
13.4.3.8. Chart Settings Dialog Box
13.4.3.9. Add/Edit Marker Dialog Box
13.4.3.10. Add/Edit Opt Goal Dialog Box
13.4.3.11. Viewing the Schematic and Layout
13.4.3.12. Generate Design Dialog Box
General Section
Schematic Section
Analysis Section
Graphs
Tuning and Optimization
Microstrip Models
13.4.4. Lumped Model Options Dialog Box
13.4.4.1. Lumped Model Options Realization Tab
13.4.4.2. Vendors and Parts Dialog Box
13.4.4.3. Vendor Part Libraries
13.4.4.4. Lumped Model Options Parasitics Tab
Losses
Self-resonance Frequency (SRF)
13.4.4.5. Lumped Model Options Limits Tab
13.4.5. Distributed Model Options Dialog Box
13.4.5.1. Distributed Model Options Realization Tab
13.4.5.2. Distributed Model Options Technology Tab
13.4.5.3. Distributed Model Options Parasitics Tab
13.4.5.4. Distributed Model Options Limits Tab
13.4.6. Lowpass Filters
13.4.6.1. Lumped Element Lowpass Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.6.2. Lumped Lowpass/Highpass Diplexer
13.4.6.3. Stepped Impedance Lowpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.6.4. Distributed Stubs Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.6.5. Optimum Distributed Lowpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.7. Highpass Filters
13.4.7.1. Lumped Element Highpass Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.7.2. Shunt Stub Highpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.7.3. Optimum Distributed Highpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8. Bandpass Filters
13.4.8.1. Lumped Element Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.8.2. Narrowband Lumped Element Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.8.3. Coupled Resonator Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.8.4. Wideband Lumped Element LP+HP Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.8.5. Lumped Bandpass Multiplexer
13.4.8.6. Shunt Stub Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.7. Optimum Distributed Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.8. Edge Coupled Bandpass Filter (Parallel Coupled Line Filter)
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.9. Stepped Impedance Resonator (SIR) Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.10. Interdigital Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.11. Combline Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.8.12. Hairpin Bandpass Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.9. Bandstop Filters
13.4.9.1. Lumped Element Bandstop Filter
Typical Specifications
13.4.9.2. Optimum Distributed Bandstop Filter
Typical Specifications
Tuning and Optimization
13.4.10. Auxiliary Dialog Boxes
13.4.10.1. Design Utilities Dialog Box
Design Utilities VSWR (Conversion) Tab
Design Utilities Midband IL (Midband Insertion Loss) Tab
Design Utilities Air Coil (Calculation) Tab
Design Utilities Capacitance (Gap/Pad) Tab
13.4.10.2. Environment Options Dialog Box
Environment Options Units Tab
13.4.11. Design Examples
13.4.11.1. Lumped Element BPF Example
13.4.11.2. Microstrip Bandpass Filter Example
13.4.11.3. Arbitrary Narrowband Filter Simulation Example
13.5. iFilter Synthesis Wizard
13.5.1. Running the iFilter Synthesis Wizard
13.5.2. Synthesis Specific Dialog Boxes
13.5.2.1. Advanced Synthesis Dialog Box
13.5.2.2. Transmission Zero Templates Toolbar
13.5.2.3. Element Extraction Toolbar
13.5.2.4. Transformations Toolbar
13.5.2.5. Root Finder Toolbar
13.5.2.6. Circuit Transformations Dialog Box
13.5.2.7. Auto Synthesis Dialog Box
13.5.2.8. Coupling Coefficients
13.5.2.9. Transformation Guide Dialog Box
13.5.2.10. Synthesis Information Window
13.5.3. Lumped Bandpass Filter Example
13.5.3.1. Solution 1 - Standard Textbook Solution from iFilter
13.5.3.2. Solution 2 - Narrowband Microwave Filter solution from iFilter
13.5.3.3. Solution 3 - Synthesis Solution from iFilter Synthesis
13.5.4. Synthesis Process Flow
13.5.5. Designing in Manual or Semi-Automatic Mode
13.5.6. Designing in Fully Manual Mode
13.5.6.1. Tuning the Finite TZ
13.5.7. Designing in Semi-Automatic Mode
13.5.8. Designing in Fully Automatic Mode
13.5.9. iFilter Synthesis Features
13.5.10. Distributed Element Lowpass Filter Example
13.5.10.1. Lowpass Filter with Monotonic Stopband
13.5.10.2. Solution #1 – All Transmission Zeros located at Fq
Short Cut 1
Short Cut 2
13.5.10.3. Solution #2 – Filter with Non-redundant Transmission Lines
13.5.10.4. Solutions with Finite TZs
Solution #3 – Filter with 1 TZ at Inf, 4 UE and 1 FTZ
Solution #4 – Filter with 3 TZ at Inf, 2 UE and 1 FTZ
Solution #5 – Filter with 1 TZ at Inf, 2 UE and 2 FTZ
13.6. Impedance Matching Wizard (iMatch)
13.6.1. Using the iMatch Wizard
13.6.1.1. Running the iMatch Wizard
13.6.1.2. Closing the Wizard
13.6.2. iMatch Wizard Basics
13.6.2.1. Matching Terminations Dialog Box
13.6.2.2. Matching Options Dialog Box
13.6.2.3. Analysis Frequency Range
13.6.2.4. Chart Setting Dialog Box
13.6.2.5. Graphics Display Control Options
13.6.3. Impedance Matching Basics
13.6.4. Maximum Power Transfer
13.6.5. Reactance Cancellation
13.6.5.1. Lumped (Series) Cancellation Method
13.6.5.2. Lumped (Shunt) Cancellation Method
13.6.5.3. Stub (Shunt) Cancellation Method
13.6.5.4. Transmission Line Cancellation Method
13.6.5.5. Required Level of Matching
13.6.5.6. Single Frequency Point Matching
13.6.5.7. Step-by-step or iMatch
13.6.5.8. Smith Chart
Constant VSWR Circles
Constant Resistance Circles
Constant Reactance Circles
Constant Q Circles
13.6.6. Impedance Matching Types
13.6.6.1. Manual
13.6.6.2. Lumped Element: L/Pi/Tee Type
L-section LP (Lowpass)
L-section HP (Highpass)
Pi-section CLC (Capacitor–Inductor–Capacitor)
Pi-section LCC (Inductor–Capacitor–Capacitor)
Pi-section CLL (Capacitor–Inductor–Inductor)
Tee-section CCL (Capacitor–Capacitor–Inductor)
Tee-section LCL (Inductor–Capacitor–Inductor)
Tee-section LLC (Inductor–Inductor–Capacitor)
13.6.6.3. Lumped Element: N-section
Max.Flat
13.6.6.4. Lumped Element: 3-section
LP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
LP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
LP-HP-LP (Lowpass-Highpass–Lowpass)
LP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)
HP-LP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
HP-LP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
HP-HP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)
HP-HP-HP (Highpass-Highpass-Highpass)
13.6.6.5. Lumped Element: 4-section
LP-LP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
LP-LP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
LP-LP-HP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass)
LP-LP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)
LP-HP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
LP-HP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
LP-HP-HP-LP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)
LP-HP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass–Highpass)
HP-LP-LP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
HP-LP-LP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
HP-LP-HP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass)
HP-LP-HP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)
HP-HP-LP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)
HP-HP-LP-HP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)
HP-HP-HP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)
HP-HP-HP-HP (Highpass–Highpass–Highpass–Highpass)
13.6.6.6. Distributed/Mixed Element: TL+Stub
Shunt OST + TL (Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line)
Shunt SST + TL (Shunt Shorted Stub + Transmission Line)
Shunt IND + TL (Shunt Inductor + Transmission Line)
Shunt CAP + TL (Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line)
Series IND + TL (Series Inductor + Transmission Line)
Series CAP + TL (Series Capacitor + Transmission Line)
Double Shunt OST + TL (Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line + Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line)
Double Shunt CAP + TL (Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line + Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line)
Double TL (Transmission Line + Transmission Line)
Single TL (short) (Single Transmission Line – Short Line)
Single TL (long) (Single Transmission Line - Long Line)
13.6.6.7. Distributed Element: Multiple TL
Middle Impedance
Binomial
Klopfenstein Taper
Hecken Taper
Exponential Taper
13.7. Mixer and Multiplier Synthesis Wizard
13.8. Network Synthesis Wizard
13.8.1. Synthesis Definition Tab
13.8.2. Components Tab
13.8.3. Parameter Limits Tab
13.8.4. DC & Bias Feed Tab
13.8.5. Goals Tab
13.8.6. Search Options Tab
13.8.7. Results Tab
13.9. OpenAccess Import/Export Wizard
13.9.1. Specifying Options
13.9.2. Component Mapping
13.9.3. Handling Variables
13.9.4. Wizard Considerations
13.10. PCB Import Wizard
13.10.1. IPC-2581 and ODB++ File Import
13.10.1.1. Supported ODB++ and IPC Formats
13.10.1.2. Exporting IPC-2581 from Allegro
13.10.1.3. PCB Import Layers Options
13.10.1.4. PCB Import Nets Options
13.10.1.5. PCB Import Stackup Options
13.10.1.6. PCB EM Setup Tool
13.10.1.7. EM Structure Creation
13.10.1.8. Trimming with EM Clip Region
13.10.1.9. Clipping Shapes in Schematic Layout and Creating an EM Structure
13.10.1.10. Editing EM Structure with Clip Region
13.10.1.11. Selecting PCB Pin Ports in an EM Structure
13.10.2. 3Di Import
13.10.3. Dielectric and Conductor Information
13.10.4. EM Boundaries
13.10.5. Using ACE
13.10.6. Schematic Components
13.10.7. Adding Stimulus
13.10.8. Extraction
13.10.8.1. Layout Only Shapes
13.10.8.2. Ports
13.10.8.3. EM Pin Locations
13.10.9. Errors and Warnings
13.10.10. Solder Balls and Bumps
13.11. Phased Array Generator Wizard
13.11.1. Designing an Array
13.11.1.1. Geometry Tab
13.11.1.2. Feed Network Tab
13.11.1.3. Element Groups Tab
13.11.1.4. Element Antennas Tab
13.11.1.5. Element RF Links Tab
13.11.1.6. Tapers Tab
13.11.1.7. Failures Tab
13.11.1.8. Layout View
13.11.1.9. Antenna Pattern View
13.11.2. Generating System Diagrams and Schematics
13.11.2.1. Generate System Diagrams
13.11.2.2. Generate PHARRAY_F Data File
13.11.2.3. Generate Schematic Layout
13.12. PHD Model Generator Wizard
13.13. RFP RF Planning Tool Wizard
13.13.1. RFP RF Planning Tool Basics
13.13.2. Maintaining System States
13.13.2.1. Select Wizard Action Dialog Box
13.13.2.2. Up/Downconverter Wizard Dialog Box
13.13.2.3. LO/IF Search Dialog Box
13.13.2.4. System States - Conversion Stages Dialog Box
13.13.2.5. System States Dialog Box
13.13.2.6. System Setup Shortcuts
13.13.3. Maintaining the Selected System
13.13.3.1. Mixer Stages Dialog Box
13.13.3.2. Mixer Spurious Information Window
13.13.3.3. Spur Check Dialog Box
13.13.3.4. Analysis Setting Dialog Box
13.13.3.5. Specifications Group
13.13.3.6. System Specifications Dialog Box
13.13.3.7. System Information Window
13.13.4. Maintaining Input Bands
13.13.4.1. Input Signal Bands Dialog Box
13.13.4.2. Input Bands Auto Setup Dialog Box
13.13.4.3. System Input Signal Library Window
13.13.5. Component Editing
13.13.5.1. Adding Component Shortcuts
13.13.5.2. Part Library Window
13.13.5.3. Edit AMP Dialog Box
13.13.5.4. Edit ATT Dialog Box
13.13.5.5. Edit MIX
13.13.5.6. Spur Table Dialog Box
13.13.5.7. Edit SWT Dialog Box
13.13.5.8. Edit BPF Dialog Box
13.13.5.9. Edit Custom Filter Dialog Box
13.13.5.10. Edit LPF Dialog Box
13.13.5.11. Edit SBP Dialog Box
13.13.5.12. Edit ADC Dialog Box
13.13.6. Viewing System Response
13.13.6.1. Budget Response
13.13.6.2. Budget Response with Sweep Parameter
13.13.6.3. System Budget Plot Options Dialog Box
13.13.6.4. Spot Freq Schematic View Mode
13.13.6.5. Spot Freq Response View Mode
13.13.6.6. Frequency Band Response View Mode
13.13.6.7. Viewing Responses of All Systems
13.13.6.8. Viewing Spot/Band Responses of All Stages
13.13.7. Generating Designs in the NI AWR Design Environment Software
13.13.8. Utilities
13.13.8.1. Sensitivity
13.13.8.2. Path Loss
13.13.9. Spur Chart
13.13.10. RFP RF Planning Tool Wizard Example
13.14. Stability Analysis Wizard
13.14.1. IVCAD Server Installation and Configuration
13.15. Symbol Generator Wizard
13.16. VSS RF Budget Spreadsheet Wizard
13.16.1. Using the RFB Spreadsheet Wizard
13.16.1.1. Starting the Wizard
13.16.1.2. Running the Wizard
13.16.1.3. Closing the Wizard
13.16.2. RF Budget Spreadsheet Basics
13.16.2.1. Display Orientation
13.16.2.2. Cell Selection
13.16.2.3. Block Columns
Adding/Inserting Blocks
Editing Blocks
13.16.2.4. Parameter Rows
Adding, Inserting and Modifying Parameter Rows
Editing Parameter Values
13.16.2.5. Measurement Rows
13.16.2.6. Simulation
13.16.2.7. Saving
13.16.2.8. Formatting/Appearances
13.16.2.9. Notes Columns and Rows
13.16.2.10. Branches
Adding Branches
Navigating Branches
Changing Branches
13.16.2.11. Printing
13.16.2.12. Exporting
13.17. Process Definition Wizard
13.18. Load Pull Script
13.18.1. Generating a Load Pull Template
13.18.1.1. Standard Load Pull Template with Two Tuners
13.18.1.2. Modified Load Pull Template with One Tuner and One Fixed Termination
13.18.2. Generating a System Load Pull Template
13.18.3. Performing Load Pull Simulations
13.18.3.1. Load Pull Gamma Sweeps
13.18.3.2. Load Pull Gamma Points
13.18.3.3. Load Pull Setup
13.19. Nuhertz Filter Wizard
14. Scripts
14.1. Running Installed Scripts
14.2. Adding a New Script
14.3. Customizing How a Script is Run
A. Component Libraries
A.1. Including Custom Components in the NI AWR Design Environment
A.1.1. Using a PDK
A.1.2. Using the AppDataUser Folders
A.2. Vendor Component Libraries
A.3. Vendor Library Availability
A.4. XML Component Libraries
A.5. AWR's XML Schema Description
A.5.1. Keywords, Attributes, and Hierarchy
A.6. Creating XML Libraries
A.6.1. Creating XML Libraries using XML Files
A.6.1.1. Sample XML File Defining Resistors
A.6.2. Creating XML Libraries Using Excel Files and Visual Basic
A.6.2.1. Microwave Office Example Library Overview
A.6.2.2. VSS Example Library Overview
A.6.2.3. Generating the XML Library Using a Visual Basic Script
A.6.2.4. Excel Spreadsheet Format
Excel Cell A2 - Folder
Excel Cell B2 - XML Model Type
Excel Cell C2 - Parameter Name
Excel Cell D2 - Parameter Listing Column
Excel Cell E2 - Top Parameter
Excel Cell F2 - Icon
Common XML Icons
A.6.2.5. Data Section of the Spreadsheet
Excel Column A - Component Information
Excel Column B - Model Name
Excel Column C - Model Description
Excel Column D - Model Part Number
Excel Column E - Symbol Setting
Excel Column F - Help Setting
Excel Column G - Layout Cell
Excel Column H - Column ZZ - Model Information
AWR Model Specification
AWR Model for VSS LIN_S Model for VSS
AWR Model for VSS LIN_S Model for Microwave Office
A.6.2.6. Optional: Copyright and Summary Settings for 8.0 and older versions
A.6.2.7. All Available XML Icons
A.7. Common XML Library Configurations
A.7.1. Configuration 1: Same AWR Model, Different Parameter Sets
A.7.2. Configuration 2: Multiple AWR Models in One Folder, Using All Default Values
A.7.3. Configuration 3: Multiple XML Model Types in One XML Folder
A.8. Advanced Options
A.8.1. Referencing Files in XML Files
A.8.2. Adding User Attributes in XML Files
A.9. Parameterized XML
A.9.1. Creating Parameterized XML Using XML Files
A.9.2. Creating Parameterized XML Using Excel Files
A.9.2.1. Creating Parameterized XML for Microwave Office
A.9.2.2. Creating Parameterized XML for VSS
A.9.2.3. Parameterized XML Through Multiple Layers of Hierarchy
A.9.3. Using Parameterized XML
A.9.4. Parameterized XML Limitations
A.9.5. Parameterized Subcircuits
A.9.5.1. Parameterized Subcircuit Example
A.9.5.2. Creating Parameterized Subcircuits
A.9.6. Generating MDIF Files
A.10. Troubleshooting
A.10.1. Debugging XML Files
A.10.2. Validating the XML
A.10.3. XML Verbose Mode
A.10.4. Testing the XML Library Using a Visual Basic Script
B. New Design Considerations
B.1. Overview of Considerations for a New Design
B.2. Configuring Schematic and Layout Colors
B.3. Determining Project Units
B.4. Using Test Bench to Analyze Designs
B.5. Multiple Processor Setup
B.6. Using X-models
B.7. Determining your Database Resolution
B.8. Using Dependent Parameters
B.9. Configuration for PCB Layout and Manufacturing
B.9.1. Manufacturing Flow
B.9.2. Layer Configuration
B.9.3. Artwork Import
B.9.4. Design Export
B.10. Layout Face Inset Options
B.10.1. Snapping
B.11. Export Options
B.12. Specifying GDSII Cell Library Options
B.13. Performing LVS Analysis
B.14. Component Libraries
C. NI AWR Design Environment Errors and Warnings
C.1. Extrapolation
C.2. Cannot Find <item> for the Nonlinear Measurement
C.3. Floating Point Overflow Error in Output Equations
C.4. Not Translated to SPICE
C.5. Step Size for Source Stepping has Decreased Below a Minimum Allowed Value
C.6. Error Evaluating Parameter
C.6.1. Intelligent Cell Syntax
C.6.2. Model Blocks
C.6.3. SWPVAR Blocks
C.7. No Sweep Specified for X-axis
C.8. Rise, Fall, and Width Combination Errors
C.9. Port Eeff and Gamma Computation Warning for EMSight
C.10. Design Rule Violation For X-models
C.11. No Frequency Range Defined
C.12. Not Passive and Does Not Contain Any Noise Data
C.13. Problem with File Format
C.14. X-model Autofill Message (Understanding X-models)
C.15. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Measurement Update
C.16. MWOfficePS.dll is Too Old or Cannot be Found
C.17. Repairing the NI AWR Design Environment Installation
C.18. Failure Initializing the AWR Scripting IDE Addin
C.19. Unregistered OLE DLLs
C.20. Active NPort Found When Computing NDF
C.21. Area Pins Must be 2x the DBU
C.22. Using MOPENX Model with Secondary L Parameter Not Set to 0
C.23. Port_Number: Face(s) Not on a Drawing Layer
C.24. Port_Number: Detached Face(s) on Drawing Layer Without Connectivity Rules
C.25. Port_Number: Detached Face(s) on Drawing Layer Drawing_Layer_Name
C.26. ALERT_RULES_CONV Error for Geometry Simplification Rules
C.26.1. EXTRACT Blocks with Different SPP Options
C.26.2. EXTRACT Blocks with Same SPP Options
C.26.3. EXTRACT Blocks with Mixed Mesh Options
C.27. Shape Modifier Priority Ordering Conflict Detected
C.28. AXIEM High Aspect Ratio Facet Detected
C.29. AXIEM High Aspect Area Facet Detected
C.30. AXIEM Poor Resolution Facet Detected
C.31. AXIEM Local Ground does not Extend Entire Width of the Port Extension
C.32. AXIEM Min Edge Length Warning and Port Width Error
C.33. ACE Simulation when Using Metal Surface Impedances
C.34. Error Obtaining the Antenna Data
C.35. Error Reading Image Data
C.36. Singular Matrix in Sparse Circuit Solver
C.37. Linear Simulation Error About Y-Matrix
C.38. Error Evaluating Parameter VarName
C.39. Simulating Outside Supported Range of Element
C.40. Negative Frequency Folding
C.41. Conflicts in Simulation Order for Extraction
C.42. Unset Node Data Types
C.43. Doc is Parameterized and Has No Swept Parameters
C.44. Found Only Good Conductors on Wave Port Plane
C.45. Analyst Potential Geometry Problem Found
C.46. Incompatible Data Types
C.47. Incompatible Auto Data Types
C.48. Cannot Take Measurements on System Diagrams with PORTDIN Blocks
C.49. Simulation Deadlock
C.50. Node Properties Not Propagated
C.51. Incompatible Center and Sampling Frequencies
C.52. Disconnected Elements Causing Ill-Conditioned Matrix
C.53. Missing Element Definition for '<model>'
C.54. Could Not Determine VSS Node Type
C.55. AXIEM Internal Port Setup Issue
C.56. Analyst Effective Radiation Boundary does not Enclose Radiator
C.57. AXIEM Multiple-port Solver Out of Memory
C.58. Unsupported Model
C.59. No Connectivity Checking when Using Shape Modifiers
C.60. Global Definition Document '<global doc>' Not Found
C.61. Illegal measurement component for Loop Gain
C.62. Analyst Port Polarity Not Defined
C.63. Wave Impedance Invalid
D. NI AWR Design Environment Test Bench Projects
D.1. Importing Test Benches
D.1.1. Test Bench Project With Internet Access
D.1.2. Test Bench Import Without Internet Access

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