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Simulation and Analysis Guide

NI AWR Design Environment v14.04 Edition

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© 2019 National Instruments. All rights reserved. © 2019 AWR Corporation. All rights reserved.


  • Analog Office, APLAC, AWR, AWR Design Environment, AXIEM, Microwave Office, National Instruments, NI, ni.com and TX-Line are registered trademarks of National Instruments. Visual System Simulator (VSS), Analyst, and AWR Connected are trademarks of AWR Corporation/National Instruments. Refer to the Trademarks section at ni.com/trademarks for other National Instruments trademarks.

  • Other product and company names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.


For patents covering NI AWR software products/technology, refer to ni.com/patents.

The information in this guide is believed to be accurate. However, no responsibility or liability is assumed by National Instruments for its use.

Table of Contents

1. Preface
1.1. About This Book
1.1.1. Additional Documentation
1.1.2. Typographical Conventions
1.2. Getting Online Help
2. Simulation Basics
2.1. Measurement-based Simulation
2.2. Choosing a Simulator Type
2.3. Swept Parameter Analysis
2.3.1. Sweep Control Types
Frequency Sweep Control
Power Sweep Control
Voltage/Current Sweep Control
Creating a Sweep with Variable Sweep Control (SWPVAR)
Modifying Existing Sweeps or Variables
Sweep Ordering
Using Units with the Swept Variable Control (SWPVAR)
Specifying Swept Variable Values
2.3.2. Displaying Swept Parameter Data
Frequency Sweep Display Options
Variable Sweep Display Options
Example Graphs
Parameter Markers
Measurement Notation
2.3.3. Using a Marker to Define a Sweep Index
2.3.4. Number of Sweep Points vs. Number of Simulation Points
2.3.5. Swept Variables and Extraction
2.4. Variable Browser
2.4.1. Linking to Elements or Equations
2.4.2. Tagging
2.4.3. Tuning, Optimizing, and Constraining Variable Values
2.4.4. Show Secondary Parameters
2.4.5. Yield
2.5. Tuning
2.5.1. Tuning Basics
2.5.2. Additional Tuning Details
2.6. Optimization
2.6.1. Optimizer Operations
The Error Function
2.6.2. Optimization Guidelines
Limit the number of frequencies
Termination Criteria
Frequency Selection
Conflicting Goals
Noise/Intermodulation Goals
Local and Global Minima
2.6.3. S-parameter Fitting for FETs
2.6.4. Setting Element Parameters for Optimization
2.6.5. Setting Optimization Goals
Adding Optimization Goals
Modifying and Managing Optimization Goals
Deleting Optimization Goals
Disabling Optimization Goals
Optimization Goals on Graphs
2.6.6. Relationship Between Optimization Variables and Goals
2.6.7. Performing the Optimization
2.6.8. Optimization Methods
Pointer - Robust Optimization
Pointer Optimizer Additional Details
Simplex Optimization
Discrete Local Search
Random (Local)
Gradient Optimization
Simulated Annealing (Simplex)
Differential Evolution
Genetic Algorithms
Gaussian Mutation
Uniform Mutation
Random (Global)
Advanced Genetic Algorithm
Particle Swarm
Lineup Optimization
Lineup Optimizer Details
2.6.9. Discrete Optimization
2.7. Yield Analysis
2.7.1. Setting Statistical Properties
2.7.2. Setting Yield Analysis Goals
2.7.3. Performing Yield Analysis
Yield Analysis
Yield Optimization
Corners Analysis
User Defined Corners (Design of Experiments)
2.7.4. Displaying Performance Variation
2.7.5. Analyzing the Results
Component Sensitivity
Performance Histograms
Identifying Values for a Given Yield Result
2.7.6. Saving and Restoring Yield Results
2.7.7. Saving Yield Data to a File
2.7.8. Controlling Memory Requirements
2.7.9. Debugging Simulation Errors
2.8. Working with Hierarchy
2.9. Using Simulation Filters and Switch View Lists
2.9.1. Simulation Filters
2.9.2. Switch View Concepts
Preparing to Use Switch Views and Switch Lists
Adding Switch Views
Adding Switch Lists
2.10. Using Scripted APLAC
2.10.1. Using the Scripted APLAC Simulator
2.10.2. Using SCRIPT Blocks
3. DC Analysis
4. Linear Analysis
4.1. Using the Linear Simulator
4.1.1. Linear Solver
4.1.2. Linear Circuit Design
4.1.3. Linear Noise Analysis
5. AC Analysis
5.1. AC Noise Analysis
6. Harmonic Balance Analysis
6.1. Harmonic Balance Background
6.2. Accuracy, Speed, and Convergence
6.2.1. Choice of Significant Frequencies
6.2.2. Calculation of Nonlinear Device Currents
6.2.3. Specifying Simulation Accuracy
6.2.4. Convergence
6.3. Harmonic Balance Options
6.3.1. Tone Harmonics
6.3.2. Harmonic Limiting
6.4. Setting Up HB Simulations
6.4.1. Specification of Analysis Frequency
6.4.2. Single-Tone Analysis
6.4.3. Two-tone Analysis
6.4.4. Three-tone Analysis
6.4.5. Multi-tone Analysis
6.4.6. Sources
6.5. Nonlinear Measurements
6.5.1. Measuring Voltages and Currents
6.5.2. Measuring Power
6.5.3. Nonlinear Measurement Notes
6.6. Multi-rate (Nonlinear) Harmonic Balance Analysis
6.6.1. Using MRHB
MRHB Block Setup
6.7. Nonlinear Noise Analysis
6.7.1. Noise in Nonlinear Circuits
6.7.2. Noise Analysis
6.7.3. Performing Noise Simulations
The Noise Control Element
Nonlinear Noise Analysis
Simulation Controls
6.8. Nonlinear Oscillator Analysis
6.8.1. Oscillator Analysis in the Frequency Domain
6.8.2. The Oscillator Probe
6.8.3. Analysis Flow
6.8.4. Performing Oscillator Simulations
Probe Parameters
Harmonic Balance Parameters
Probe Connection
Post-processing Capabilities
Limitations and Peculiarities of Oscillator Analysis
Increasing the Speed of Convergence
6.8.5. Phase Noise
Performing Phase Noise Analysis
6.9. Linear Harmonic Balance Analysis
7. Transient Analysis
7.1. Transient Analysis Basics
7.1.1. Measurements Using Transient Analysis Simulators
7.1.2. Data File Size
7.1.3. Restrictions on the Circuit Topology
7.2. Sources in Transient Simulators
7.3. Models in Transient Simulators
7.3.1. Causality of the Models
Lumped Models
Transmission Line Models
Behavioral Filter Models
Models for Piecewise Voltage and Current Sources
Simplifying Assumptions for Several Lumped Models
Transient Simulation with Models Specified by Frequency-dependent N-port Parameters
Guidelines for Use of Rational Approximation
Rational Approximation and the Time Step Control
Third-Party Circuit Simulators
7.4. HSPICE Specific Concerns
7.4.1. Common HSPICE Options
Setting a Smaller Time Step than the AWR Default
Method=Gear DELMAX=<small value>
7.4.2. Divergent Transient Simulations in HSPICE
7.5. Netlist Management for APLAC and HSPICE
8. Circuit Envelope Simulation
8.1. Circuit Envelope Basics
9. EM: Creating EM Structures with Extraction
9.1. Extraction Overview
9.1.1. Physical Simulators
9.1.2. Why Use Extraction?
9.1.3. When Not to Use Extraction
9.2. Extraction Setup Basics
9.3. Extraction Flow
9.4. Schematic Layout
9.4.1. State of Layout
9.4.2. Issues with Hierarchy
9.4.3. EM Extracting Elements with Grounds
9.4.4. Extraction Ports
Hiding Extraction Ports
9.4.5. Area Pins
9.5. EXTRACT Block
9.5.1. EXTRACT Block Enable
9.5.2. Simulator Defaults
9.5.3. Extraction EM Frequencies
9.5.4. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic With Different Group Names
9.5.5. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic With the Same Group Names
9.6. STACKUP Block
9.6.1. Multiple STACKUPs
9.7. Selecting Models and Shapes for Extraction
9.8. Viewing Items for Extraction
9.9. Viewing EM Structures Before Simulation
9.10. Extraction Through Hierarchy
9.10.1. EXTRACT Blocks Through Hierarchy
9.10.2. Extracting Subcircuits
9.11. EM Optimization, Tuning, and Yield Analysis
9.12. Extraction and Switch Views
9.13. Extraction and Swept Variables
9.14. Extraction and Shape/Layer Modifiers
9.15. EMSight Layout Issues
9.16. 3D EM Extraction
9.16.1. 3D EM Extraction Setup
9.16.2. Synchronizing the 3D Layout
9.16.3. Z-Position
9.16.4. Boundary Shape
9.16.5. EM Hierarchy
10. EM: EM Editor
10.1. Creating EM Structures without Extraction
10.1.1. Creating a New EM Structure
10.1.2. Initialization Options
10.1.3. Simulator, Mesh, and Simulation Frequency Options
10.1.4. Enclosure Size and Grid
10.1.5. Stackup Properties
10.1.6. Drawing Shapes in EM Structures
Locking EM Layouts
AWR EM Layout Environment
Drawing Shapes by Stackup Parameters
Drawing Shapes by Drawing Layers
Drawing Shapes by Line Types
Displaying Layers by Mapping Status
Creating Shapes by Importing GDSII/DXF Files
Defining Shapes by Copying Artwork
Selecting Shapes
Editing Shape Properties
Editing Shapes
Trimming with EM Clip Region
Clipping Shapes in Schematic Layout and Creating an EM Structure
Moving Shapes to Different Layers
10.1.7. Using Ports
10.1.8. Using a 3D Layout
10.1.9. Setting Frequencies
Advanced Frequency Sweeps
Exporting EM Structures
10.1.10. Meshing
10.1.11. Importing and Linking to EM Structures
Importing EM Structures
Linking To EM Structures
Importing GDSII/DXF as an EM Structure
10.1.12. Exporting EM Structures
Exporting from Schematic Layout
Exporting from EM Layout
10.1.13. Cleaning Up EM Layer Mapping
Changing Shape Properties
Changing EM Structures EM Layer Mapping
Changing the Parent LPF EM Mapping
10.1.14. Disabling EM Structures for Simulation
10.1.15. Forcing Resimulation
10.1.16. Using EM Structures in a Schematic
10.2. Configuring Stackup
10.2.1. Material Definitions
Dielectric Properties
Conductor Definitions
Impedance Definitions
10.2.2. Frequency-dependent Material Definitions
Frequency-dependent Equations
Specifying Frequency-dependent STACKUP Parameters
Verifying Stackup Values
10.2.3. Dielectric Layers
10.2.4. Conductor Materials
10.2.5. EM Layer Mappings
10.2.6. Line Type Mapping
10.2.7. EM Layer Mapping vs. Line Types
10.3. Adding EM Ports
10.3.1. Adding Edge Ports
10.3.2. Adding Point Ports
10.3.3. Adding Internal Ports
10.3.4. Creating Ports from Subcircuits
10.3.5. Setting Reference Planes
10.3.6. Setting the Port Excitation or Termination
10.3.7. Editing EM Ports
10.4. Parameterizing EM Structures
10.4.1. EM Schematic
10.4.2. Parameterizing EM Documents
10.4.3. Using Parameterized EM Documents
EM Optimization
EM Yield
User-defined EM Models
On Demand Simulation
10.5. EM Annotations and Cut Planes
10.5.1. Mesh Annotations
EM_MESH Features
10.5.2. Cut Planes
10.5.3. Current Animation & E-field Visualizations
Current Animation
E-field Visualization
10.6. In-situ Measurements and Annotations
10.6.1. In-Situ Current Animation
10.6.2. In-situ Antenna Measurements and Annotations
10.6.3. Limitations/Restrictions of In-situ Measurements/Annotations
10.7. Geometry Simplification
10.7.1. Writing Rules
Rule Writing Guidelines
Generic Procedure for Fixing High Aspect Ratio Facets
10.7.2. Using Rules for EM Simulation
AXIEM Considerations
10.7.3. Rule Syntax
10.7.4. Rule Details
Example Usage
Example Usage
10.7.5. Debugging Rules
Previewing the Geometry
Verbose Logging
10.7.6. Rule Examples
Creating an Air Bridge Layer
Simplifying Plated Lines
Signal vs Ground Vias
10.8. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Structures
10.8.1. Creating a New Arbitrary 3D EM Structure
10.8.2. Initialization Options
10.8.3. Simulator, Mesh, and Simulation Frequency Options
10.8.4. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Geometries
10.8.5. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Structures from Existing 3D EM Structures
11. EM: Job Scheduler
11.1. Running Asynchronous Simulations
11.1.1. Extraction Issues
11.2. Setting Job Scheduler Options
11.3. Using the Job Monitor
11.4. Utilizing Remote Computing
11.4.1. Remote Server Configurations
One Remote Computer
Multiple Remote Computers
Job Distribution
11.4.2. Installing and Setting Up Remote Computing
User Computer Installation and Set Up
Connecting to Remote Servers
Remote Computer Installation and Set Up
New Installations
Manual Upgrade
Remote Install and Uninstall
Major Version Upgrades
Licensing or .ini File Changes
Compute Node Setup
Scheduler Node Set Up
Advanced Remote Computer Settings
11.4.3. Using the AWR_JobScheduler Service
Stopping the Service
Starting the Service
Manually Setting the Service Version
Uninstalling the Service
11.4.4. Using Remote Simulation
11.4.5. Shutting Down Computers
11.4.6. Troubleshooting Remote Computing
Firewall Ports
Verification Failure
User Computer Cannot Verify Scheduler Node
Scheduler Node Can't Verify Compute Node
Log Files
12. EM: Automated Circuit Extraction (ACE)
12.1. Overview of Extraction Setup
12.1.1. Extraction Process
12.1.2. Configuring the STACKUP Element
12.1.3. Adding the Extraction Control Element
12.1.4. Adding iNets and/or Line Models to the Extraction Group
12.1.5. Configuring ACE Simulation Options
12.1.6. Viewing an EM Structure without Simulating
12.2. Advanced Extraction Topics
12.2.1. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic
13. EM: EMSight
13.1. The Electromagnetic Solver
13.1.1. The Problem Domain
13.2. EMSight Enclosure
13.3. EMSight Ports
13.3.1. Adding Edge Ports
13.3.2. Setting the Reference Planes
13.3.3. Setting the Port Excitation or Termination
13.3.4. Adding Via Ports
13.3.5. Adding Internal Ports
13.3.6. Description of Internal Ports
13.3.7. Internal Port Example
13.3.8. Using the Results of the Internal Port Example
13.3.9. Example Using a Three-Terminal Device
13.4. De-embedding
13.4.1. The Standard De-embedding Algorithm in EMSight
13.4.2. The Fast De-embedding Algorithm in EMSight
13.4.3. De-embedding Issues in EMSight
13.4.4. De-embedding of Via Ports in EMSight
EM Structure Named "Structure"
EM Structure Named "Standard"
13.5. Conductor Meshing
13.5.1. Specifying Individual Conductor Mesh Properties
13.5.2. Sonnet Options
13.6. EM Solver Options
13.7. The Moment Tables in EMSight
13.7.1. EMSight as Frequency Domain Solver
13.8. Using the EMSight Simulator Effectively
13.8.1. The Solution Process
Creating the Structure
Defining the Layers
Adding the Conductors
Defining Ports
Meshing the Geometry
Creating the Moment Matrix
Solving the Moment Matrix
Direct Matrix Solvers
Direct (Out-of-Core) Matrix Solver
Iterative Matrix Solvers
13.8.2. De-embedding the Solution
The Default De-embedding Algorithm
The Fast De-embedding Algorithm
13.8.3. Low Frequency (DC) Solution
13.8.4. Minimizing Solution Time
Moment Table Creation
Number of Enclosure Divisions
Number of Dielectric Layers
Number of Metal Layers and Layers with Vias
Lossy Dielectric
Lossy Boundaries
Filling the Moment Matrix
Optimizing Cache Usage
Minimizing Solution Time
13.8.5. Modeling Vias
13.8.6. Avoiding Resonances
13.8.7. Modeling Loss
Dielectric Loss
Lossy Boundaries
Conductor Loss
13.8.8. Thick Conductors
13.8.9. Coplanar Waveguide
13.9. Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
13.9.1. AFS Algorithm
13.9.2. Algorithm Outline
13.9.3. Warning Messages
Recommendations for Efficient Use
13.10. Determining Proper Cell Size for Accurate Simulation
13.10.1. Cell Size Definition
13.10.2. Guidelines to Determining Proper Cell Size: FDS
13.11. Partitioning Large Structures
13.11.1. Coupled MTEEs Example
PCB Example
13.12. Tips to Speed Up Simulations
14.1. The Electromagnetic Solver
14.2. Using AXIEM
14.2.1. AXIEM Licensing
14.2.2. Frequency Setup
14.2.3. Simulation Information
14.2.4. Viewing the Mesh
14.2.5. Simulation Status
14.2.6. Thick Metal Setup
14.3. Solvers
14.4. AXIEM Ports
14.4.1. Editing Ports
14.4.2. Setting the Reference Planes
14.4.3. Setting Explicit Ground Reference
14.4.4. Auto Ports
Determining Ground Planes
Applying Auto Grounding
Applying Auto Grouping
Applying Auto Extension
Auto Ports on Coupled Lines
Auto Ports on Plated Lines
14.4.5. Port Types
Edge Ports
Point Ports
Differential Ports
Series Ports
Multi-terminal Ports
Internal Ports
14.4.6. Port Accuracy
14.4.7. Port De-embedding
Coupled Line De-embedding
Mutual Group De-embedding
Viewing De-embedding Standards
Port De-embedding and Status
De-embedding Process Overview
De-embedding Limitations
14.4.8. Recommended Port Usage
Differential Lines
Coplanar Waveguide
Thick Substrates Relative to Frequency
Device Interconnects
Local Ground Plane
14.5. AXIEM Meshing
14.5.1. Meshing Terms Defined
Meshing Density
14.5.2. Setting Global or Document Mesh Options
14.5.3. Meshing Dependencies
Meshing Density
Enclosure Settings
Max Aspect Ratio
Mesh Units
Mesh Size
Maximum and Minimum Grid Size
Edge Meshing
Edge Meshing when Using Thickness
Minimal Z Meshing (sidewalls)
Edge Mesh Vias (Top/Bottom)
14.5.4. Decimation Strategies
Rules Based Geometry Simplification
14.5.5. AXIEM Meshing Example
14.6. AXIEM Solver Options
14.6.1. Solver Type
14.6.2. Matrix Entry Accuracy
14.6.3. De-embed Ports
14.7. Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
14.7.1. Enable AFS
14.7.2. Tol (dB)
14.7.3. Max # sim pts
14.7.4. Enable Band Limit
14.7.5. Plotting Currents and Antenna Measurements with AFS
14.8. Using Preset Options
14.9. Iterative Solver Options
14.10. Iterative Solver Convergence Issues
14.10.1. Causes of Poor Convergence
Frequency Related Causes
Geometry Related Causes
14.10.2. Possible Convergence Remedies
Try Different Solvers
Pre-conditioner Efficiency
Max Iterations
Subspace Size
Convergence Tolerance
14.11. Accuracy/Performance Issues
14.11.1. Problem Specific Accuracy
14.11.2. Compression Accuracy
14.11.3. Matrix Element Calculation
14.11.4. Pre-conditioner Efficiency
14.11.5. Recognizing AXIEM Limitations
14.12. Passivity Enforcement
14.13. Advanced AXIEM Topics and Practical Design Considerations
14.13.1. Enclosure Setup
14.13.2. AXIEM Ports
De-embedding Ports on Lines that have Common Edges with Vias
14.13.3. Conductor Loss Modeling
Thin Metal Modeling
Thick Metal Modeling
Enhanced Thin Metal Modeling
Enhanced Thick Metal Modeling
Loss Model for Conductor Surface Roughness
Loss Modeling for Vias
14.13.4. Mesh Quality
14.13.5. AXIEM Solvers
Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
14.13.6. Simulation Issues
Stripline Setup
14.13.7. Antenna Simulations
Including Resistive Losses
Phase Center of Antennas
Radiation Pattern Along the Horizon (theta=90degree)
15. EM: Analyst 3D
15.1. Analyst 3D Editor Help
15.2. Setting Up Analyst
15.3. Choosing a Simulator: Analyst or AXIEM
15.3.1. Differences in AXIEM and Analyst Structure Setup
15.4. Recognizing Analyst Limitations
15.5. Converting AXIEM Projects to Analyst Projects
15.6. Setting Up Analyst Geometry
15.6.1. Using the Drawing Grid
15.6.2. Drawing Shapes
Adding Dielectric Shapes
Defining Frequency-Dependent Materials
Material Priority with Overlaps
15.6.3. Viewing the 3D Model Used by the Simulator
15.6.4. Using 3D EM Elements
Updating 3D Parts
Offline 3D EM Elements
Downloading the 3D EM Elements Library
Installing a Local 3D EM Elements Library
Creating Custom 3D Parts
Creating a Library of 3D Parts
Versioning the EM Part
Versioning the XML
15.6.5. Importing Layout Geometry
15.6.6. Creating Hierarchical EM Documents
15.6.7. Specifying Simulation Boundaries
Editing Boundary Shapes
Boundary Size
Choosing Boundary Conditions
Editing Boundary Conditions
Viewing Boundary Conditions
Using the Boundary Shape to Truncate Structures
Using Boundaries Defined in Arbitrary 3D EM Structures
15.6.8. Analyst Ports
Wave Ports
Custom Extents
Lumped Ports
Point Ports
Understanding Port Impedance
15.6.9. Recommended Port Usage
CPW Structures
Internal Wave Ports
15.6.10. Working with Hierarchy
Material Priority in Hierarchy
Boundary Conditions in Hierarchy
15.6.11. Setting Up Parameterization
15.6.12. Simplifying Geometry
15.6.13. Setting Analyst Structure Default Options
15.7. Setting Up an Analyst Simulation
15.7.1. Mesh Options
15.7.2. Job Scheduler Options
15.7.3. Solver Options
Adaptive Mesh Refinement Options
15.8. Running Analyst Simulations
15.8.1. Refining a Solution
15.8.2. Understanding Simulation Progress and Feedback
Adaptive Mesh Refinement Process
Phase 1: Ports Only AMR
Phase 2: Full Solve AMR
Phase 3: Final Solve
Status Window
Output Log
Solution Convergence
15.9. Viewing Simulation Results
15.9.1. Data Sets for Analyst
15.9.2. Viewing the Mesh
15.9.3. Viewing the Fields
15.9.4. Viewing Annotations by Material
15.10. Analyst Simulator Operations
15.10.1. Basis Sets
15.10.2. Frequency Sweeps
15.10.3. Low Frequency/DC
15.11. Advanced Analyst Topics
15.11.1. Antenna Simulations in Analyst
Enabling Antenna Far Fields
Setting the Sphere Sampling Increment
Boundary Conditions
Applying Excitation
Setting up an Antenna Measurement
15.11.2. Loss Model for Conductor Surface Roughness
16. EM: AWR Connected Partners
16.1. Configuring Partner EM Solvers
16.2. Creating and Simulating Documents
16.2.1. AWR Connected for HFSS
Supported 3D pCells
Viewing Geometry in HFSS
Mesh Options
Simulator Options
Running HFSS Simulations
Running HFSS Simulations Remotely
Sweeping with HFSS
Viewing Simulation Results
17. EM: NET-AN
17.1. Parasitic Extraction
17.1.1. Setup Issues
17.1.2. Viewing Parasitic Extraction Results
Viewing Extraction Elements in Layout
A. Advanced Analysis Topics
A.1. Load Pull
A.1.1. Simulated Load Pull
A.1.2. Using Load Pull Files
A.1.3. Load Pull File De-embedding
A.1.4. Using Load Pull Measurements
A.2. APLAC HB Simulator Convergence
A.2.1. DC Analysis
A.2.2. APLAC Harmonic Balance
A.3. APLAC Transient Simulator Convergence
A.3.1. DC Analysis
A.3.2. Transient Analysis
A.4. HB Simulator Convergence
A.4.1. Circuit Operation Checks (Not changing simulator options)
A.4.2. Harmonic Balance Settings Options
A.5. Stability Analysis Methods
A.5.1. Normalized Determinant Function (NDF) Analysis
A.5.2. Stability Envelope Analysis
A.5.3. Loop Gain
LoopGain and NLLoopGain Measurements
A.5.4. Microwave Office Approach to Internal Stability Analysis
Internal Stability Background
A.5.5. Performing Internal Stability Analysis
A.5.6. Termination Impedances
A.5.7. Nonlinear Internal Stability Analysis
A.6. Antenna Analysis Methods
A.6.1. Selection of the Boundary Condition
A.6.2. Re-Radiation of Equivalent Currents into Free Space
A.6.3. Antenna Measurements and Drawing Coordinate Systems
A.6.4. Antenna Measurement Types
A.6.5. Antenna Measurement Polarizations
A.6.6. Guidelines for Antenna Analysis
Placing Side-walls Far Enough from Antenna
Approximate Open: Select Optimal Elevation of Enclosure Top Cover
Infinite Waveguide: Horizon Radiation Limitations
Calculation of Antenna Characteristics
Calculation of the Antenna Far-field Radiation Pattern
Calculation of the Antenna Directivity
Calculation of the Antenna Gain
A.7. Using Temperature in Simulations
A.7.1. Displaying Temperature Values Used in Simulation
A.7.2. Different Temperature Situations in NI AWR
A.7.3. Temperature and Noise for Passive Structures
A.7.4. Temperature and Active Device Operation
A.7.5. Temperature and Active Device Operation with a Device Defined by a SPICE Netlist
A.7.6. How to Sweep Passive and Active Temperature Through Hierarchy
A.7.7. Group Design Issues
A.7.8. Conclusions
A.8. Simulating in a Non 50 Ohm System
A.8.1. Setting the Characteristic Impedance of a Schematic
A.8.2. Non 50 Ohm Data Files
Creating non 50 Ohm Output Files
Plotting from Data Files
A.8.3. Measurements on Non 50 Ohm EM Structures
A.8.4. Load Pull Analysis in non 50 Ohms Systems
A.8.5. Denormalizing Impedance on a Smith Chart

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