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AWR Design Environment Simulation and Analysis Guide

© 2021 Cadence Design Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents

1. Preface
1.1. About This Book
1.1.1. AWR Design Environment Limited Release
1.1.2. Additional Documentation
1.1.3. Typographical Conventions
1.2. Getting Online Help
2. Simulation Basics
2.1. Measurement-based Simulation
2.2. Choosing a Simulator Type
2.3. Swept Parameter Analysis
2.3.1. Sweep Control Types
Frequency Sweep Control
Power Sweep Control
Voltage/Current Sweep Control
Creating a Sweep with Variable Sweep Control (SWPVAR)
Modifying Existing Sweeps or Variables
Sweep Ordering
Using Units with the Swept Variable Control (SWPVAR)
Specifying Swept Variable Values
2.3.2. Displaying Swept Parameter Data
Frequency Sweep Display Options
Variable Sweep Display Options
Example Graphs
Parameter Markers
Measurement Notation
2.3.3. Using a Marker to Define a Sweep Index
2.3.4. Number of Sweep Points vs. Number of Simulation Points
2.3.5. Swept Variables and Extraction
2.4. Variable Browser
2.4.1. Show Secondary Parameters
2.4.2. Linking to Elements or Equations
2.4.3. Tagging
2.4.4. Finding and Replacing
2.4.5. Tuning, Optimizing, and Constraining Variable Values
2.4.6. Yield
2.5. Tuning
2.5.1. Tuning Basics
2.5.2. Additional Tuning Details
2.6. Optimization
2.6.1. Optimizer Operations
The Error Function
2.6.2. Optimization Guidelines
Limit the number of frequencies
Termination Criteria
Speed
Frequency Selection
Conflicting Goals
Noise/Intermodulation Goals
Local and Global Minima
2.6.3. S-parameter Fitting for FETs
2.6.4. Setting Element Parameters for Optimization
2.6.5. Setting Optimization Goals
Adding Optimization Goals
Modifying and Managing Optimization Goals
Deleting Optimization Goals
Disabling Optimization Goals
Optimization Goals on Graphs
2.6.6. Relationship Between Optimization Variables and Goals
2.6.7. Performing the Optimization
2.6.8. Optimization Log
2.6.9. Optimization Methods
Pointer - Robust Optimization
Pointer Optimizer Details
Random (Global) Optimization
Random (Local) Optimization
Kapu Optimization
Gradient Optimization
Conjugate Gradient Optimization
Direction Set Method
Simplex Optimization
Robust Simplex Optimization
Simulated Annealing (Simplex) Method
Differential Evolution Optimization
Genetic Algorithms
Gaussian Mutation
Uniform Mutation
Advanced Genetic Algorithm
Particle Swarm Optimization
Discrete Local Search Optimization
Lineup Optimization
Lineup Optimizer Details
2.6.10. Discrete Optimization
2.6.11. Parallel Optimization
2.7. Yield Analysis
2.7.1. Setting Statistical Properties
2.7.2. Setting Yield Analysis Goals
2.7.3. Performing Yield Analysis
Yield Analysis
Yield Optimization
Corners Analysis
User Defined Corners (Design of Experiments)
2.7.4. Displaying Performance Variation
2.7.5. Analyzing the Results
Component Sensitivity
Performance Histograms
Identifying Values for a Given Yield Result
2.7.6. Saving and Restoring Yield Results
2.7.7. Saving Yield Data to a File
2.7.8. Controlling Memory Requirements
2.7.9. Debugging Simulation Errors
2.8. Working with Hierarchy
2.9. Using Simulation Filters and Switch View Lists
2.9.1. Simulation Filters
2.9.2. Switch View Concepts
Preparing to Use Switch Views and Switch Lists
Adding Switch Views
Adding Switch Lists
2.10. Using Scripted APLAC
2.10.1. Using the Scripted APLAC Simulator
2.10.2. Using SCRIPT Blocks
3. DC Analysis
4. Linear Analysis
4.1. Using the Linear Simulator
4.1.1. Linear Solver
4.1.2. Linear Circuit Design
4.1.3. Linear Noise Analysis
4.1.4. APLAC Linear Subcircuit Caching
5. AC Analysis
5.1. AC Noise Analysis
6. Harmonic Balance Analysis
6.1. Harmonic Balance Background
6.2. Accuracy, Speed, and Convergence
6.2.1. Choice of Significant Frequencies
6.2.2. Calculation of Nonlinear Device Currents
6.2.3. Specifying Simulation Accuracy
6.2.4. Convergence
6.3. Harmonic Balance Options
6.3.1. Tone Harmonics
6.3.2. Harmonic Limiting
6.4. Setting Up HB Simulations
6.4.1. Specification of Analysis Frequency
6.4.2. Single-Tone Analysis
6.4.3. Two-tone Analysis
6.4.4. Three-tone Analysis
6.4.5. Multi-tone Analysis
6.4.6. Sources
6.5. Nonlinear Measurements
6.5.1. Measuring Voltages and Currents
6.5.2. Measuring Power
6.5.3. Nonlinear Measurement Notes
6.6. Multi-rate (Nonlinear) Harmonic Balance Analysis
6.6.1. Using MRHB
MRHB Block Setup
6.7. Nonlinear Noise Analysis
6.7.1. Noise in Nonlinear Circuits
6.7.2. Noise Analysis
6.7.3. Performing Noise Simulations
The Noise Control Element
Nonlinear Noise Analysis
Measurements
Simulation Controls
References
6.8. Nonlinear Oscillator Analysis
6.8.1. Oscillator Analysis in the Frequency Domain
6.8.2. The Oscillator Probe
6.8.3. Analysis Flow
6.8.4. Performing Oscillator Simulations
Probe Parameters
Harmonic Balance Parameters
Probe Connection
Post-processing Capabilities
Limitations and Peculiarities of Oscillator Analysis
Increasing the Speed of Convergence
6.8.5. Phase Noise
Performing Phase Noise Analysis
6.9. Linear Harmonic Balance Analysis
7. Transient Analysis
7.1. Transient Analysis Basics
7.1.1. Measurements Using Transient Analysis Simulators
7.1.2. Data File Size
7.1.3. Restrictions on the Circuit Topology
7.2. Sources in Transient Simulators
7.3. Models in Transient Simulators
7.3.1. Causality of the Models
Lumped Models
Transmission Line Models
Behavioral Filter Models
Models for Piecewise Voltage and Current Sources
Simplifying Assumptions for Several Lumped Models
Transient Simulation with Models Specified by Frequency-dependent N-port Parameters
Guidelines for Use of Rational Approximation
Rational Approximation and the Time Step Control
Third-Party Circuit Simulators
7.4. Netlist Management for APLAC
8. Circuit Envelope Simulation
8.1. Circuit Envelope Basics
9. Remote and Parallel Simulation
9.1. Setting Up Remote or Parallel Simulations
9.2. Running Remote or Parallel Sweeps
9.3. Performing Remote and Parallel Optimization
9.4. Performing Parallel Analysis
9.5. Utilizing Remote Computing
10. Job Scheduler
10.1. Running Asynchronous Simulations
10.1.1. Extraction Issues
10.2. Setting Job Scheduler Options
10.3. Using the Job Monitor
10.4. Utilizing Remote Computing
10.4.1. Remote Server Configurations
One Remote Computer
Multiple Remote Computers
Job Distribution
10.4.2. Installing and Setting Up Remote Computing
User Computer Installation and Set Up
Connecting to Remote Servers
Remote Computer Installation and Set Up
New Installations
Manual Upgrade
Remote Install and Uninstall
Major Version Upgrades
Licensing or .ini File Changes
Compute Node Setup
Scheduler Node Set Up
Supporting Parallel Simulation on a Remote Queue
Advanced Remote Computer Settings
10.4.3. Using the AWR_JobScheduler Service
Stopping the Service
Starting the Service
Manually Setting the Service Version
Uninstalling the Service
10.4.4. Using Remote Simulation
10.4.5. Shutting Down Computers
10.4.6. Troubleshooting Remote Computing
Firewall Ports
Verification Failure
Socket Transport Verification Failure
Named Pipe Transport Verification Failure
Log Files
10.5. Remote Linux Simulations
10.5.1. Architecture
10.5.2. Cluster Requirements
10.5.3. Cluster Installation
Configure SSH
10.5.4. Creating the Linux Job Scheduler Remote Host
Troubleshooting Host Verification
10.5.5. Running a Remote Linux Simulation
10.5.6. Job Parameters and LSF/Torque Submission
11. EM: Creating EM Structures with Extraction
11.1. Extraction Overview
11.1.1. Physical Simulators
11.1.2. Why Use Extraction?
11.1.3. When Not to Use Extraction
11.2. Extraction Setup Basics
11.3. Extraction Flow
11.4. Schematic Layout
11.4.1. State of Layout
11.4.2. Issues with Hierarchy
11.4.3. EM Extracting Elements with Grounds
11.4.4. Extraction Ports
Hiding Extraction Ports
11.4.5. Area Pins
11.5. EXTRACT Block
11.5.1. EXTRACT Block Enable
11.5.2. Simulator Defaults
11.5.3. Extraction EM Frequencies
11.5.4. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic With Different Group Names
11.5.5. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic With the Same Group Names
11.6. STACKUP Block
11.6.1. Multiple STACKUPs
11.7. Selecting Models and Shapes for Extraction
11.8. Viewing Items for Extraction
11.9. Viewing EM Structures Before Simulation
11.10. Extraction Through Hierarchy
11.10.1. EXTRACT Blocks Through Hierarchy
11.10.2. Extracting Subcircuits
11.11. EM Optimization, Tuning, and Yield Analysis
11.12. Extraction and Switch Views
11.13. Extraction and Swept Variables
11.14. Extraction and Shape/Layer Modifiers
11.15. EMSight Layout Issues
11.16. 3D EM Extraction
11.16.1. 3D EM Extraction Setup
11.16.2. Synchronizing the 3D Layout
11.16.3. Z-Position
11.16.4. Boundary Shape
11.16.5. EM Hierarchy
12. EM: EM Editor
12.1. Creating EM Structures without Extraction
12.1.1. Creating a New EM Structure
12.1.2. Initialization Options
12.1.3. Simulator, Mesh, and Simulation Frequency Options
12.1.4. Enclosure Size and Grid
12.1.5. Stackup Properties
12.1.6. Drawing Shapes in EM Structures
Locking EM Layouts
AWR EM Layout Environment
Drawing Shapes by Stackup Parameters
Drawing Shapes by Drawing Layers
Drawing Shapes by Line Types
Displaying Layers by Mapping Status
Creating Shapes by Importing GDSII/DXF Files
Defining Shapes by Copying Artwork
Selecting Shapes
Editing Shape Properties
Editing Shapes
Trimming with EM Clip Region
Clipping Shapes in Schematic Layout and Creating an EM Structure
Moving Shapes to Different Layers
12.1.7. Using Ports
12.1.8. Using a 3D Layout
12.1.9. Setting Frequencies
Advanced Frequency Sweeps
Exporting EM Structures
12.1.10. Meshing
12.1.11. Importing and Linking to EM Structures
Importing EM Structures
Linking To EM Structures
Importing GDSII/DXF as an EM Structure
12.1.12. Exporting EM Structures
Exporting from Schematic Layout
Exporting from EM Layout
12.1.13. Cleaning Up EM Layer Mapping
Changing Shape Properties
Changing EM Structures EM Layer Mapping
Changing the Parent LPF EM Mapping
12.1.14. Disabling EM Structures for Simulation
12.1.15. Forcing Resimulation
12.1.16. Using EM Structures in a Schematic
12.2. Configuring Stackup
12.2.1. Material Definitions
Dielectric Properties
Conductor Definitions
Impedance Definitions
12.2.2. Frequency-dependent Material Definitions
Frequency-dependent Equations
Specifying Frequency-dependent STACKUP Parameters
Verifying Stackup Values
12.2.3. Dielectric Layers
12.2.4. Conductor Materials
12.2.5. EM Layer Mappings
12.2.6. Line Type Mapping
12.2.7. EM Layer Mapping vs. Line Types
12.3. Adding EM Ports
12.3.1. Adding Edge Ports
12.3.2. Adding Point Ports
12.3.3. Adding Internal Ports
12.3.4. Creating Ports from Subcircuits
12.3.5. Setting Reference Planes
12.3.6. Setting the Port Excitation or Termination
12.3.7. Editing EM Ports
12.4. Parameterizing EM Structures
12.4.1. EM Schematic
12.4.2. Parameterizing EM Documents
12.4.3. Using Parameterized EM Documents
EM Optimization
EM Yield
User-defined EM Models
On Demand Simulation
12.5. EM Annotations and Cut Planes
12.5.1. Mesh Annotations
EM_MESH Features
12.5.2. Cut Planes
12.5.3. Current Animation & E-field Visualizations
Current Animation
E-field Visualization
12.6. In-situ Measurements and Annotations
12.6.1. In-Situ Current Animation
12.6.2. In-situ Antenna Measurements and Annotations
12.6.3. Limitations/Restrictions of In-situ Measurements/Annotations
12.7. Geometry Simplification
12.7.1. Writing Rules
Rule Writing Guidelines
Generic Procedure for Fixing High Aspect Ratio Facets
12.7.2. Using Rules for EM Simulation
AWR AXIEM Considerations
12.7.3. Rule Syntax
12.7.4. Rule Details
DECIMATE_MIN_EDGE
Syntax
Example Usage
Summary
Description
REGION
Syntax
Example Usage
Summary
Description
12.7.5. Debugging Rules
Previewing the Geometry
Verbose Logging
12.7.6. Rule Examples
Creating an Air Bridge Layer
Simplifying Plated Lines
Signal vs Ground Vias
12.8. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Structures
12.8.1. Creating a New Arbitrary 3D EM Structure
12.8.2. Initialization Options
12.8.3. Simulator, Mesh, and Simulation Frequency Options
12.8.4. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Geometries
12.8.5. Creating Arbitrary 3D EM Structures from Existing 3D EM Structures
13. EM: Automated Circuit Extraction (ACE)
13.1. Overview of Extraction Setup
13.1.1. Extraction Process
13.1.2. Configuring the STACKUP Element
13.1.3. Adding the Extraction Control Element
13.1.4. Adding iNets and/or Line Models to the Extraction Group
13.1.5. Configuring ACE Simulation Options
13.1.6. Viewing an EM Structure without Simulating
13.2. Advanced Extraction Topics
13.2.1. Multiple Extractions in a Single Schematic
14. EM: EMSight
14.1. EMSight Enclosure
14.2. EMSight Ports
14.2.1. Adding Edge Ports
14.2.2. Setting the Reference Planes
14.2.3. Setting the Port Excitation or Termination
14.2.4. Adding Via Ports
14.2.5. Adding Internal Ports
14.2.6. Description of Internal Ports
14.2.7. Internal Port Example
14.2.8. Using the Results of the Internal Port Example
14.2.9. Example Using a Three-Terminal Device
14.3. De-embedding
14.3.1. The Standard De-embedding Algorithm in EMSight
14.3.2. The Fast De-embedding Algorithm in EMSight
14.3.3. De-embedding Issues in EMSight
14.3.4. De-embedding of Via Ports in EMSight
EM Structure Named "Structure"
EM Structure Named "Standard"
14.4. Conductor Meshing
14.4.1. Specifying Individual Conductor Mesh Properties
14.4.2. Sonnet Options
14.5. EM Solver Options
14.6. The Moment Tables in EMSight
14.6.1. EMSight as Frequency Domain Solver
14.7. Using the EMSight Simulator Effectively
14.7.1. The Solution Process
Creating the Structure
Defining the Layers
Adding the Conductors
Defining Ports
Meshing the Geometry
Creating the Moment Matrix
Solving the Moment Matrix
Direct Matrix Solvers
Direct (Out-of-Core) Matrix Solver
Iterative Matrix Solvers
14.7.2. De-embedding the Solution
The Default De-embedding Algorithm
The Fast De-embedding Algorithm
14.7.3. Low Frequency (DC) Solution
14.7.4. Minimizing Solution Time
Moment Table Creation
Number of Enclosure Divisions
Number of Dielectric Layers
Number of Metal Layers and Layers with Vias
Lossy Dielectric
Lossy Boundaries
Filling the Moment Matrix
Optimizing Cache Usage
Minimizing Solution Time
14.7.5. Modeling Vias
14.7.6. Avoiding Resonances
14.7.7. Modeling Loss
Dielectric Loss
Lossy Boundaries
Conductor Loss
14.7.8. Thick Conductors
14.7.9. Coplanar Waveguide
14.8. Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
14.8.1. AFS Algorithm
14.8.2. Algorithm Outline
14.8.3. Warning Messages
Recommendations for Efficient Use
14.9. Determining Proper Cell Size for Accurate Simulation
14.9.1. Cell Size Definition
14.9.2. Guidelines to Determining Proper Cell Size: FDS
Frequency
Dimension
Structure
14.10. Partitioning Large Structures
14.10.1. Coupled MTEEs Example
PCB Example
14.11. Tips to Speed Up Simulations
15. EM: AWR AXIEM
15.1. Using the AWR AXIEM Solver
15.1.1. Frequency Setup
15.1.2. Simulation Information
15.1.3. Viewing the Mesh
15.1.4. Simulation Status
15.1.5. Thick Metal Setup
15.2. Solvers
15.3. AWR AXIEM Ports
15.3.1. Editing Ports
15.3.2. Setting the Reference Planes
15.3.3. Setting Explicit Ground Reference
15.3.4. Auto Ports
Determining Ground Planes
Applying Auto Grounding
Applying Auto Grouping
Applying Auto Extension
Auto Ports on Coupled Lines
Auto Ports on Plated Lines
15.3.5. Port Types
Edge Ports
Point Ports
Differential Ports
Series Ports
Multi-terminal Ports
Internal Ports
15.3.6. Port Accuracy
15.3.7. Port De-embedding
Coupled Line De-embedding
Mutual Group De-embedding
Viewing De-embedding Standards
Port De-embedding and Status
De-embedding Process Overview
De-embedding Limitations
15.3.8. Recommended Port Usage
Differential Lines
Coplanar Waveguide
Thick Substrates Relative to Frequency
Vias
Device Interconnects
Local Ground Plane
15.4. AWR AXIEM Meshing
15.4.1. Meshing Terms Defined
Meshing Density
Decimation
15.4.2. Setting Global or Document Mesh Options
15.4.3. Meshing Dependencies
Geometry
Frequency
Meshing Density
Enclosure Settings
Max Aspect Ratio
Mesh Units
Mesh Size
Maximum and Minimum Grid Size
Edge Meshing
Edge Meshing when Using Thickness
Minimal Z Meshing (sidewalls)
Edge Mesh Vias (Top/Bottom)
15.4.4. Decimation Strategies
Rules Based Geometry Simplification
Decimation
15.4.5. AWR AXIEM Meshing Example
15.5. AWR AXIEM Solver Options
15.5.1. Solver Type
15.5.2. Matrix Entry Accuracy
15.6. Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
15.6.1. Enable AFS
15.6.2. Tol (dB)
15.6.3. Max # sim pts
15.6.4. Enable Band Limit
15.6.5. Plotting Currents and Antenna Measurements with AFS
15.7. Using Preset Options
15.8. Iterative Solver Options
15.9. Iterative Solver Convergence Issues
15.9.1. Causes of Poor Convergence
Frequency Related Causes
Geometry Related Causes
15.9.2. Possible Convergence Remedies
Try Different Solvers
Pre-conditioner Efficiency
Max Iterations
Subspace Size
Convergence Tolerance
15.10. Accuracy/Performance Issues
15.10.1. Problem Specific Accuracy
15.10.2. Compression Accuracy
15.10.3. Matrix Element Calculation
15.10.4. Pre-conditioner Efficiency
15.10.5. Recognizing AWR AXIEM Limitations
15.11. Passivity Enforcement
15.12. Advanced AWR AXIEM Topics and Practical Design Considerations
15.12.1. Enclosure Setup
15.12.2. AWR AXIEM Ports
De-embedding Ports on Lines that have Common Edges with Vias
15.12.3. Conductor Loss Modeling
Thin Metal Modeling
Thick Metal Modeling
Enhanced Thin Metal Modeling
Enhanced Thick Metal Modeling
Loss Model for Conductor Surface Roughness
Loss Modeling for Vias
15.12.4. Mesh Quality
15.12.5. AWR AXIEM Solvers
Advanced Frequency Sweep (AFS)
15.12.6. Simulation Issues
Stripline Setup
15.12.7. Antenna Simulations
Including Resistive Losses
Phase Center of Antennas
Radiation Pattern Along the Horizon (theta=90degree)
16. EM: Analyst 3D
16.1. Analyst 3D Editor Help
16.2. Setting Up Analyst Simulation
16.3. Choosing a Simulator: Analyst or AWR AXIEM
16.3.1. Differences in AWR AXIEM and Analyst Structure Setup
16.4. Recognizing Analyst Limitations
16.5. Converting AWR AXIEM Projects to Analyst Projects
16.6. Setting Up Analyst Geometry
16.6.1. Using the Drawing Grid
16.6.2. Drawing Shapes
Adding Dielectric Shapes
Defining Frequency-Dependent Materials
Material Priority with Overlaps
16.6.3. Viewing the 3D Model Used by the Simulator
16.6.4. Using 3D EM Elements
Updating 3D Parts
Offline 3D EM Elements
Downloading the 3D EM Elements Library
Installing a Local 3D EM Elements Library
Creating Custom 3D Parts
Creating a Library of 3D Parts
Versioning the EM Part
Versioning the XML
16.6.5. Importing Layout Geometry
16.6.6. Creating Hierarchical EM Documents
16.6.7. Specifying Simulation Boundaries
Editing Boundary Shapes
Boundary Size
Choosing Boundary Conditions
Editing Boundary Conditions
Viewing Boundary Conditions
Using the Boundary Shape to Truncate Structures
Using Boundaries Defined in Arbitrary 3D EM Structures
16.6.8. Analyst Ports
Wave Ports
Custom Extents
Lumped Ports
Point Ports
Understanding Port Impedance
16.6.9. Recommended Port Usage
CPW Structures
Internal Wave Ports
16.6.10. Working with Hierarchy
Material Priority in Hierarchy
Boundary Conditions in Hierarchy
16.6.11. Setting Up Parameterization
16.6.12. Simplifying Geometry
16.6.13. Setting Analyst Structure Default Options
16.7. Setting Up an Analyst Simulation
16.7.1. Mesh Options
16.7.2. Job Scheduler Options
16.7.3. Solver Options
Adaptive Mesh Refinement Options
16.8. Running Analyst Simulations
16.8.1. Refining a Solution
16.8.2. Understanding Simulation Progress and Feedback
Adaptive Mesh Refinement Process
Phase 1: Ports Only AMR
Phase 2: Full Solve AMR
Phase 3: Final Solve
Status Window
Output Log
Solution Convergence
16.9. Viewing Simulation Results
16.9.1. Data Sets for Analyst
16.9.2. Viewing the Mesh
16.9.3. Viewing the Fields
16.9.4. Viewing Annotations by Material
16.10. Analyst Simulator Operations
16.10.1. Basis Sets
16.10.2. Frequency Sweeps
16.10.3. Low Frequency/DC
16.11. Advanced Analyst Topics
16.11.1. Antenna Simulations in Analyst
Enabling Antenna Far Fields
Setting the Sphere Sampling Increment
Boundary Conditions
Applying Excitation
Setting up an Antenna Measurement
16.11.2. Loss Model for Conductor Surface Roughness
17. EM: External Solvers
17.1. Configuring External Solvers
17.2. Creating and Simulating Documents
17.2.1. Clarity 3D Solver
Ports
Hierarchy
Viewing Geometry in Clarity
Running the Clarity Solver
Running the Clarity Solver Remotely
17.2.2. Celsius Thermal Solver
Celsius Setup
Hierarchy
Running the Celsius Solver
Running the Celsius Solver Remotely
18. EM: NET-AN
18.1. Parasitic Extraction
18.1.1. Setup Issues
18.1.2. Viewing Parasitic Extraction Results
Viewing Extraction Elements in Layout
A. Advanced Analysis Topics
A.1. Load Pull
A.1.1. Simulated Load Pull
A.1.2. Using Load Pull Files
A.1.3. Load Pull File De-embedding
A.1.4. Using Load Pull Measurements
A.2. APLAC HB Simulator Convergence
A.2.1. DC Analysis
A.2.2. APLAC Harmonic Balance
A.3. APLAC Transient Simulator Convergence
A.3.1. DC Analysis
A.3.2. Transient Analysis
A.4. HB Simulator Convergence
A.4.1. Circuit Operation Checks (Not changing simulator options)
A.4.2. Harmonic Balance Settings Options
A.5. Stability Analysis Methods
A.5.1. Normalized Determinant Function (NDF) Analysis
A.5.2. Stability Envelope Analysis
A.5.3. Loop Gain
LoopGain and NLLoopGain Measurements
A.5.4. AWR Microwave Office Approach to Internal Stability Analysis
Internal Stability Background
A.5.5. Performing Internal Stability Analysis
A.5.6. Termination Impedances
A.5.7. Nonlinear Internal Stability Analysis
A.6. Antenna Analysis Methods
A.6.1. Selection of the Boundary Condition
A.6.2. Re-Radiation of Equivalent Currents into Free Space
A.6.3. Antenna Measurements and Drawing Coordinate Systems
A.6.4. Antenna Measurement Types
A.6.5. Antenna Measurement Polarizations
A.6.6. Guidelines for Antenna Analysis
Placing Side-walls Far Enough from Antenna
Approximate Open: Select Optimal Elevation of Enclosure Top Cover
Infinite Waveguide: Horizon Radiation Limitations
Calculation of Antenna Characteristics
Calculation of the Antenna Far-field Radiation Pattern
Calculation of the Antenna Directivity
Calculation of the Antenna Gain
A.7. Using Temperature in Simulations
A.7.1. Displaying Temperature Values Used in Simulation
A.7.2. Different Temperature Situations in AWR
A.7.3. Temperature and Noise for Passive Structures
A.7.4. Temperature and Active Device Operation
A.7.5. Temperature and Active Device Operation with a Device Defined by a SPICE Netlist
A.7.6. How to Sweep Passive and Active Temperature Through Hierarchy
A.7.7. Group Design Issues
A.7.8. Conclusions
A.8. Simulating in a Non 50 Ohm System
A.8.1. Setting the Characteristic Impedance of a Schematic
A.8.2. Non 50 Ohm Data Files
Creating non 50 Ohm Output Files
Plotting from Data Files
A.8.3. Measurements on Non 50 Ohm EM Structures
A.8.4. Load Pull Analysis in non 50 Ohms Systems
A.8.5. Denormalizing Impedance on a Smith Chart

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