This is a sophisticated model, and some aspects of its behavior may be different than expected. You should read this document entirely before using this component.

Name | Description | Unit Type | Default |
---|---|---|---|

ID | Element ID | AM1 | |

GAIN | Mid-band transducer gain | dB | 10 |

NF | Noise figure | dB | 0 |

IP2H | Mid-band output IP2 (harmonic) | dB Power | 40 |

IP3 | Mid-band output IP3 | dB Power | 30 |

P1DB | Output 1-db compression point | dB Power | 10 |

*S11MAG | Input reflection coefficient magnitude | ||

*S11ANG | Input reflection coefficient phase angle | Angle | |

*S22MAG | Output reflection coefficient magnitude | ||

*S22ANG | Output reflection coefficient phase angle | Angle | |

*Z0 | Port Impedance | Resistance | 50 |

*TDLY | Group delay | Time | 0 |

The linear behavior of the amplifier is modeled by a controlled current source (the linear
part of f(v) in the equivalent circuit) and input and output impedances. The parameters of the
controlled current source are derived from the user-specified gain and impedances, so the
transducer gain is always the value specified. The gain, therefore, is the gain with the
specified values of S_{11} or S_{22}. Changing
S_{11} or S_{22} does not change the transducer
gain.

Reverse transmission is assumed to be negligible; i.e., S_{12} = 0.

It is important to recognize that IP_{3} and the 1-dB compression
point are not independent. If compression is caused by the small-signal nonlinearities of
the device, expressed in Eq. , below, the 1 dB compression point must be approximately 10 dB
below IP_{3}. However, if compression is caused by clipping of the
large-signal drain or collector waveforms, saturation can occur at a lower level, and need
not be related to IP_{3}. This is why amplifiers that are highly linear,
in terms of IP_{3}, often do not obey the "10 dB" rule. For this reason,
you can specify the 1-dB compression point and IP_{3} independently, and
the model automatically models distortion and saturation by an appropriate combination of
clipping and small-signal effects.

Nonlinearities are modeled by a polynomial and a clipping function, providing the
correct saturation and intermodulation characteristics, regardless of the relative values of
IP_{3} and P1DB. The controlled current source f(v) is modeled by a
polynomial:

This polynomial models intermodulation distortion through third order. The values of the coefficients are derived from the specified intercept points.

The one-dB compression point is more problematic to model. One cause of compression in
an amplifier is clipping of the waveforms when dc bias power is inadequate to provide
output. This can happen, in theory, even if the amplifier is perfectly linear for small
signals; that is, a_{2} = 0 and a_{3} = 0 in the
polynomial. Compression can also be caused by the inherent small-signal nonlinearities in
f(v). In this case, a cubic polynomial is not adequate to model compression, and unless
other means are used, the model becomes very poor above the 1-dB compression point.

To avoid these difficulties, the amplifier model calculates the 1 dB compression point according to both criteria and uses the one that represents the lower of the two compression levels. If the amplifier's compression is caused by clipping, a clipping function is used with the value set appropriately. However, if compression is caused by the nonlinearities in f(v), these are allowed to provide compression. The clipping level is then set somewhat higher, to provide the correct behavior in hard saturation.

The transition between these two conditions is approximately 10 dB below the third-order
intercept point, IP_{3}. Therefore, if
P1DB < IP_{3} - 10, the amplifier saturates on clipping, while, for
higher values, the nonlinearities of f(v) dominate.

The clipping function is symmetrical, so it affects only third-order intermodulation. The second-order IM level saturates gracefully, but does not exhibit the sudden increase in level that can be observed in the third-order.

As with linear characteristics, the calculation of the coefficients of the polynomial
includes the effect of S_{11} and S_{22}. Therefore,
if the value of load and source resistance is Z_{0}, changing
S_{11} or S_{22} does not affect the calculated IM
levels.

This element does not have an assigned layout cell. You can assign artwork cells to any element. See “Assigning Artwork Cells to Layout of Schematic Elements” for details.