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HICUM Level 2 Version 2.22 BJT Model: HICUM_L2A

Symbol

Summary

HICUM_L2A was conceived as a replacement for models HICUM_L2, HICUM_L2_P, HICUM_L2_SH, and HICUM_L2_SH_P. HICUM_L2A is based on the Verilog-A description of the HICUM Level 2 Version 2.22 model, which is available on the web. The HICUM Level 2 model is a semi-physical compact bipolar transistor model. HICUM is based on an extended and generalized Integral Charge Control Relation (ICCR). However, in contrast to the original Gummel-Poon model and its variants, in HICUM the ICCR concept is applied consistently without simplifications or additional fitting parameters. Quantities like depletion capacitances, transit times and associated charges, which determine the dynamic transistor behavior, are considered as basic quantities of the model.

The important physical and electrical effects taken into account by HICUM_L2A include: high current effects, emitter current crowding, 2- and 3-dimensional collector current spreading, temperature dependence and self-heating (SELFT on), weak avalanche breakdown, tunneling in the base-emitter junction, bandgap differences, substrate transistor, etc. Compared to the SPICE Gummel-Poon model, the equivalent circuit of HICUM contains two additional circuit nodes. Furthermore, the transfer current is not an explicit function of branch voltages and its computation relies on an internal Newton solver. Due to this additional complexity, simulations using the HICUM_L2A model are generally slower than those employing the GBJT model. As a result, you should use HICUM_L2A only where the need for accuracy justifies its complexity, and where parameter libraries are available.

Parameters

Name Description Unit Type Default
ID Device ID   HCM L0 1
*TNOM Temperature at which params were extracted DegC 27
TEMP Ambient temperature DegC _TEMP
MULT Number of devices in parallel   1
*C10 GICCR constant   2e-30
*QP0 Zero-bias hole change   2e-14
*ICH High-current correction for 2D and 3D effects   0
*HFE Emitter minority charge weighting factor in HBTs   1
*HFC Collector minority charge weighting factor in HBTs   1
*HJEI B-E depletion charge weighting factor in HBTs   1
*HJCI B-C depletion charge weighting factor in HBTs   1
*IBEIS Internal B-E saturation current mA 1e-15
*MBEI Internal B-E current ideality factor   1
*IREIS Internal B-E recombination saturation current mA 0
*MREI Internal B-E recombination current ideality factor   2
*IBEPS Peripheral B-E saturation current mA 0
*MBEP Peripheral B-E current ideality factor   1
*IREPS Peripheral B-E recombination saturation current mA 0
*MREP Peripheral B-E recombination current ideality factor   2
*MCF Non-ideality factor for III-V HBTs   1
*TBHREC Base-current recombination time constant at B-C barrier for high forward injection   0
*IBCIS Internal B-C saturation current mA 1e-13
*MBCI Internal B-C current ideality factor    
*IBCXS External B-C saturation current mA 0
*MBCX External B-C current ideality factor   1
*IBETS B-E tunneling saturation current mA 0
*ABET Exponent factor for tunneling current   40
*TUNODE Specifies the base node connection for the tunneling current   1
*FAVL Avalanche current factor   0
*QAVL Exponent factor for avalanche current   0
*ALFAV Relative TC for FAVL   0
*ALQAV Relative TC for QAVL   0
*RBI0 Zero bias internal base resistance ohm 0
*RBX External base series resistance ohm 0
*FGEO Factor for geometry dependence of emitter current crowding   0.6557
*FDQR0 Correction factor for modulation by B-E and B-C space charge layer   0
*FCRBI Ratio of HF shunt to total internal capacitance (lateral NQS effect)   0
*FQI Ratio of internal to total minority charge   1
*RE Emitter series resistance ohm 0
*RCX External collector series resistance ohm 0
*ITSS Substrate transistor transfer saturation current mA 0
*MSF Forward ideality factor of substrate transfer current   1
*ISCS C-S diode saturation current mA 0
*MSC Ideality factor of C-S diode current   1
*TSF Transit time for forward operation of substrate transistor ns 0
*RSU Substrate series resistance ohm 0
*CSU Substrate shunt capacitance pF 0
*CJEI0 Internal B-E zero-bias depletion capacitance pF 1e-8
*VDEI Internal B-E built-in potential V 0.9
*ZEI Internal B-E grading coefficient   0.5
*AJEI Ratio of maximum to zero-bias value of internal B-E capacitance   2.5
*CJEP0 Peripheral B-E zero-bias depletion capacitance pF 1e-8
*VDEP Peripheral B-E built-in potential V 0.9
*ZEP Peripheral B-E grading coefficient   0.5
*AJEP Ratio of maximum to zero-bias value of peripheral B-E capacitance   2.5
*CJCI0 Internal B-C zero-bias depletion capacitance pF 1e-8
*VDCI Internal B-C built-in potential V 0.7
*ZCI Internal B-C grading coefficient   0.4
*VPTCI Internal B-C punch-through voltage V 100
*CJCX0 External B-C zero-bias depletion capacitance pF 1e-8
*VDCX External B-C built-in potential V 0.7
*ZCX External B-C grading coefficient   0.4
*VPTCX External B-C punch-through voltage V 100
*FBCPAR Partitioning factor of parasitic B-C cap   0
*FBEPAR Partitioning factor of parasitic B-E cap   1
*CJS0 C-S zero-bias depletion capacitance pF 0
*VDS C-S built-in potential V 0.6
*ZS C-S grading coefficient   0.5
*VPTS C-S punch-through voltage V 100
*T0 Low current forward transit time in VBC=0V ns 0
*DTOH Time constant for base and B-C space charge layer width modulation ns 0
*TBVL Time constant for modelling carrier jam at low VCE ns 0
*TEF0 Neutral emitter storage time ns 0
*GTFE Exponent factor for current dependence of neutral emitter storage time   1
*THCS Saturation time constant at high current densities ns 0
*AHC Smoothing factor for current dependence of base and collector transit time   0.1
*FTHC Partitioning factor for base and collector portion   0
*RCI0 Internal collector resistance at low electric field ohm 150
*VLIM Voltage separating ohmic and saturation velocity regime V 0.5
*VCES Internal C-E saturation voltage V 0.1
*VPT Collector punch-through voltage V 0
*TR Storage time for inverse operation ns 0
*CBEPAR Total parasitic B-E capacitance pF 0
*CBCPAR Total parasitic B-C capacitance pF 0
*ALQF Factor for additional delay time of minority charge   0
*ALIT Factor for additional delay time of transfer current   0
*FLNQS Flag for turning on and off of vertical NQS effect   0
*KF Flicker noise coefficient   0
*AF Flicker noise exponent factor   2
*CFBE Flag for determining where to tag the flicker noise source   (-1)
*LATB Scaling factor for collector minority charge in direction of emitter width   0
*LATL Scaling factor for collector minority charge in direction of emitter length   0
*VGB Bandgap voltage extrapolated to 0 K V 1.17
*ALT0 First order relative TC of parameter T0   0
*KT0 Second order relative to TC of parameter T0   0
*ZETACI Temperature exponent for RCI0   0
*ALVS Relative TC of saturation drift velocity   0
*ALCES Relative TC of VCES   0
*ZETARBI Temperature exponent for internal base resistance   0
*ZETARBX Temperature exponent of external base resistance   0
*ZETARCX Temperature exponent for external collector resistance   0
*ZETARE Temperature exponent of emitter resistance   0
*ZETACX Temperature exponent of mobility in substrate transistor transit time   0
*VGE Effective emitter bandgap voltage V 1.17
*VGC Effective collector bandgap voltage V 1.17
*VGS Effective substrate bandgap voltage V 1.17
*F1VG Coefficient K1 in T-dependent band-gap equation   (-1.023770E-004)
*F2VG Coefficient K2 in T-dependent band-gap equation   0.00043215
*ZETACT Exponent coefficient in transfer current temperature dependence   3
*ZETABET Exponent coefficient in B-E junction current temperature dependence   3.5
*ALB Relative TC of forward current gain for V2.1 model   0
SELFT Self-heating support   off
*RTH Thermal resistance ohm 0
*CTH Thermal capacitance pF 0
FLSH Flag for self-heating calculation   COMPLETE
TYPE Device type   NPN
*FLCOMP Flag for compatibility with v2.1 model (0=v2.1)   0

* indicates a secondary parameter

Implementation Details

The TYPE parameter controls whether the device is NPN or PNP. The SELFT parameter is used to enable/disable the Self-Heating modeling capabilities. The current setting of either parameter is immediately reflected by the device symbol. The FLSH, CTH and RTH parameters are only visible when Self-Heating is enabled. The FLSH parameter determines how the dissipated power calculation is performed.

Layout

This element does not have an assigned layout cell. You can assign artwork cells to any element. See “Assigning Artwork Cells to Layout of Schematic Elements” for details.

References

This model was developed under research performed at Cadence Design Systems, Inc.. The full set of details of the implementation are considered proprietary in nature.

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