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Harmonic Balance Lossless Tuner (Closed Form): HBTUNER



The HBTUNER element is a frequency-dependent, lossless two-port network which transforms the impedance Z0 seen at port 2 to a user-defined impedance seen at port 1. Specifying the magnitude and angle of the reflection coefficient as well as the system reference impedance sets the user-defined impedance. It is assumed that port 2 of this element is loaded in the same Z0 as specified for the element.


Name Description Unit Type Default
ID Element ID Text TU1
Mag1 Magnitude of gamma looking into port 1 @ Fo   0.5
Ang1 Angle of gamma looking into port 1 @ Fo Angle 0 Deg
Mag2 Magnitude of gamma looking into port 1 @ 2Fo   0.5
Ang2 Angle of gamma looking into port 1 @ 2Fo Angle 0 Deg
Mag3 Magnitude of gamma looking into port 1 @ 3Fo   0.5
Ang3 Angle of gamma looking into port 1 @ 3Fo Angle 0 Deg
Fo Fundamental frequency Frequency 10 GHz
Zo System impedance Resistance 50 ohms

Parameter Details

Fo. The specified fundamental frequency determines the impedance seen at port 1. This impedance, Z, is represented as:

where f is the current simulation frequency.

Parameter Restrictions and Recommendations

  1. -1 < Mag1, Mag2, Mag3 < 1. If Mag1, Mag2, or Mag3 is less than or equal to -1, it is set to -0.99999. If Mag1, Mag2, or Mag3 is greater or equal to 1, it is set to 0.99999.

  2. Zo must be greater than or equal to 0.1 ohm.


This element does not have an assigned layout cell. You can assign artwork cells to any element. See “Assigning Artwork Cells to Layout of Schematic Elements” for details.

Recommendations for Use

NOTES: The impedance seen at port 1 of the element is a lossless transformation of an impedance Zo seen at port 2, to the specified reflection coefficient. If port 2 is not loaded with an impedance equal to Zo, the reflection seen at port 1 is not as specified.

This element can be used to replace a lossless matching network. However, when comparing S-parameters to an actual realization of this matching network, the phase of S12,S21and S22 may not agree, due to the incomplete specification of the network by defining only the reflection at port 1. A finite length of ideal transmission line (impedance = Zo) placed at port 2 of the tuner may be required to make S-parameters agree.

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