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Frequency Multiplier (System): FMULT



FMULT is a behavioral representation of a frequency multiplier. The model converts a signal at frequency F0 to a signal at frequency NF0. The conversion gain is user-specified.

Equivalent Circuit


Name Description Unit Type Default
ID Element ID Text  
ID Element ID   FM1
N Frequency multiplication factor   2
G Conversion gain DB -3
*F0 Input center frequency Frequency _FREQH1
*BW Signal bandwidth as a % of input center frequency   25
*S11MAG Input reflection coefficient (magnitude)   0
*S11ANG Input reflection coefficient (phase)   0
*S22MAG Output reflection coefficient (magnitude)   0
*S22ANG Output reflection coefficient (phase)   0
Z0 Port impedance Resistance 50 ohm
Pth Input power threshold Power (dB) -10

* indicates a secondary parameter

Parameter Details

Parameter BW sets the model's passband for multitone operation. Set the parameter high enough to cover the bandwidth of the input signal.

The specified input and output impedances are valid for all frequencies. The input and output ports are AC-coupled.


This element does not have an assigned layout cell. You can assign artwork cells to any element. See “Assigning Artwork Cells to Layout of Schematic Elements” for details.

Recommendations for Use

Parameter Pthis extremely important for proper operation of the model. It should be set approximately 20 dB below the expected available input power. Values higher than 10 dB below input will result in incorrect conversion gain; values lower than 30 dB below input will result in slower convergence.

The model operates as a frequency mixer, with the local oscillator at frequency (N-1)F0 generated from the input signal by a clipping operation. The lower the value of Pth the harder the clipping and the slower the convergence. Conversely, the higher the value of Pth the softer the clipping, the smaller the amplitude of the local oscillator and the less accurate the conversion gain estimate

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