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5.7. 2D/3D Electrostatic Particles (MICHELLE)

MICHELLE is a general purpose two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) charged particle beam optics code. MICHELLE has models for both equilibrium flow particle trajectories and initial-value time-dependent beam trajectories. It self-consistently computes the emission and transport of charged particles in the presence of electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. The charged particles contribute to the static fields, and the static fields act on the charged particles.

The equilibrium flow particle model is also known as a steady-state static particle-in-cell (PIC) code or a gun code. The time-dependent model is an electrostatic time-domain PIC code.

MICHELLE was developed in collaboration with LANL, NRL and US Vacuum Electronics Industry mainly with Office of Naval Research funding through the Naval Research Laboratory and with Leidos (formerly SAIC) internal research and development funding.

MICHELLE is based on a Finite-Element Particle-In-Cell formulation employing a conformal mesh to resolve very complex geometries with fine features. The finite-element field solver computes the electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials, the latter a full vector potential in 3D. Coupled with fast, robust, reliable and accurate particle trackers, and a complete set of emission algorithms, this flexibility allows MICHELLE to model very complicated devices for the most demanding design and analysis applications.

MICHELLE computes the self-consistent emission and transport of charged particle streams (rays) in self and external fields, both electric and magnetic. It additionally offers a variety of emission models including space-charge-limited, temperature-limited and field-emission, an extensive facility for secondary emission, volumetric ion source model, and a charge exchange model.

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